|   
More e-books will be available soon

   www.eolss.net

Login Login
      EOLSS Members Login Individual Members Login
      Access for Institutions Access for Institutions
      EOLSS Demo EOLSS Demo

Free Registration Free Registration
      EOLSS Free Trial Free Trial
      EOLSS Editors/Authors Editors/Authors

Subscription Information Subscription Information
      EOLSS Subscription Information Subscription Information

About EOLSS About EOLSS
      About EOLSS About EOLSS
      Outlines of the EOLSS Components Outlines of the
         Component Encyclopedias
      EOLSS e-books e-Book And Print
       Volumes
      EOLSS Information Booklet Information Booklet
      EOLSS FAQ FAQ
      EOLSS Sample Chapters Sample Chapters
      EOLSS Sample Chapters Sitemap

Journalist/Reporters Information for
   Journalist / Reporters
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Arabic Arabic
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Chinese Chinese
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in English English
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in French French
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in German German
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Italian Italian
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Japanese Japanese
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Korean Korean
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Portuguese Portuguese
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Russian Russian
      EOLSS Information Journalist / Reporters in Spanish Spanish

Services Services
     EOLSS Mailing List Join Our Mailing List
      EOLSS Feedback Feedback/Evaluation
      EOLSS Useful links Useful Links

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOLOGICAL,PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WATER SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ENERGY SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN RESOURCES POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSTITUTIONAL AND INFRASTRUCTURAL RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TECHNOLOGY,INFORMATION, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT RESOURCES ENCYCLOPEDIA OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REVIEWS

The above simplified figure illuminates the essential interconnectedness of the sixteen component encyclopedias of EOLSS.

 In the real world, the various knowledge domains do not exist in isolation from each other. They form an integrated whole, with links in all directions. It is well known that all forms of human knowledge are inter-connected and inter-related. EOLSS mimics this complexity, the automatic inter-connectedness of the various subject categories facilitating navigation through the vast landscape of EOLSS knowledge. This provides the user with an effective and efficient tool to search, navigate and browse through each of the component encyclopedias, through any combination of the sixteen, or through the whole of EOLSS.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES

SUBJECT  INDEX (partial listing)

COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE

adiabatic temperature change

advection

aerosol

air

air (atmospheric) pressure

air mass

air pollutants

anticyclone

atmosphere

aurora

cloud

condensation

contrail

convection

cyclone

dew

dew point

evaporation

greenhouse effect

greenhouse effect

heterosphere

homosphere

ionosphere

mesosphere

minor gases

radiation

stratosphere

troposphere

water

water vapor

wind

absolute humidity

CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

catalytic cycles

gas phase reactions

heterogeneous reactions

lifetime.

Atmospheric composition

SNOW COVER

metamorphism of snow

permanent snow drift

recrystallization of snow

settling of snow

snow

snow cover

snow drifts

snow retention

snow-storm (snow drifting)

wind-blown snow stream

zone of drifting snow acceleration

distance of snow transport

PEDOSPHERE IS THE SOIL COVER OF THE EARTH (IS THE EARTH’S MANTLE OF SOIL)

biodiversity

biological productivity (bioproductivity)

biosphere

ecological functions of soils

erosion and soil degradation

hydrosphere

lithosphere

soil

soil cover (mantle of soil) atmosphere

soil fertility

soil resources.

pedosphere

GENESIS OF SOILS AND FACTORS OF THE SOIL FORMATION

factors of soil formation

genesis of soils

pedogenic process

soil-forming process

stages of soil formation

soil formation

DIVERSITY AND SYSTEMATIZATION OF SOILS

a type of soil

biodiversity

classification of soils

FAO

geography of soils

reference groups of soils

soil cover

soil maps

World Reference Base for soil resources

soil diversity

GEOGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD SOIL COVER (PEDOSPHERE)

geography of soils

land resources

soil-geographic zoning

structure of soil cover

soil cover

PLANTS AND SOIL MOISTURE

Critical soil moisture pressure

Field water capacity

Lento-capillary point

Maximum hygroscopic soil moisture content

Soil moisture at permanent wilting of plants

Soil moisture pressure

Soils water conductivity

Transpiration of plants.

Oil moisture content

SOIL BIOTA

Bacteria

Biodiversity

Biota

Fungi

Microorganisms

Soil Animals

Soil-forming Processes.

Soil

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM

aerosol

airmass

albedo

anthropogenic

atmosphere

attribution

biosphere

carbon cycle

carbon dioxide

climate

climate change

climate feedback

climate forcing

climate model

climate prediction

climate projection

climate system

climatic anomaly

cloud

cryosphere

detection

drought

el nino

evaporation

feedback

fossil fuels

greenhouse effect

greenhouse gas

monitoring, permafrost

precipitation

radiation

runoff

southern oscillation

stratosphere

tropopause

troposphere

weather.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE CLIMATE OF THE EARTH

climate classification

climate zoning

descriptive climate classifications

genetic climate classifications

hydrological classifications

landscape

landscape-geographical classifications

macroclimate

mesoclimate

microclimate

objective empiric climate classifications

specialized climate classifications

underlying surface

vegetation-based climate classifications

climate

METHODS OF CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION

boreal zone

climate types

desert zone

dry steppe zones

forest zones

forest-steppe zones

geographical zones

lowland

plateau

podzol soils

relief

soil

steppe zones

tundra

upland

vertical zonality

weathering

Berg’s climate classification

OBJECTIVE EMPIRIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTH'S CLIMATE

aridity index

evapotranspiration

humidity index

moisture index

potential evapotranspiration

precipitation effectiveness

runoff

soil-water balance

soil-water budget

soil-water shortage

soil-water storage

thermal effectiveness

transpiration

water deficit

water surplus

actual evapotranspiration

GENETIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTH'S CLIMATE

air mass

Arctic (Antarctic) air

climatologic frontal zone

effective irradiance of the Earth’s surface

equatorial air

geographical classification of air masses

heat balance of Earth’s surface

latent heat of evaporation

mid-latitude (polar) air

radiation balance of Earth’s surface

radiation index of dryness

soil-air exchange

trade winds

tropical air

turbulent heat exchange

water budget

air current

APPLIED CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTHS CLIMATE

bioclimatic classification

bioclimatic potential (BCP)

biological efficiency

CLO

discomfort parameter

equivalent temperature

humidity coefficient

morphometric dependence

potential wind- and solar energy resources

radiation-equivalent-effective temperature (REET)

technical wind and solar energy resources

agroclimatic classification

CLIMATE ZONES AND TYPES

Arctic zone

climate zone

equatorial belt

subarctic (subantarctic) belt

subequatorial belt

subtropical belt

temperate belt

tropical belt

Antarctic zone

LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

ITCZ

subequatorial continental (equatorial monsoon) climate

tropical continental climate

tropical east-coast climate

tropical west-coast climate

equatorial continental climate

MIDDLE-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

east-coast climate of the temperate belt

subtropical continental climate

subtropical east-coast climate

subtropical west-coast climate

west-coast climate of the temperate belt

continental climate of the temperate belt

HIGH-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

Arctic continental climate

Arctic oceanic climate

katabatic wind

radiation cooling

subarctic continental climate

temperature inversion

annual temperature range

HIGH-ALTITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

exposure

foehn

glaze

highland climates

hoarfrost

slope

altitude

LOCAL CLIMATES

atmospheric boundary layer

bora

facies

fochn

macroclimate

nanoclimate

superadiabatic gradient of air temperature

topoclimate

turbulence factor

albedo

FACTORS CONTROLLING LOCAL CLIMATE

direct radiation

effective radiation of terrestrial surface

mesorelief

radiation balance of terrestrial surface

stability of the atmosphere stratification

active surface

URBAN CLIMATE: THE MOST IMPORTANT MODIFIED

greenhouse effect

heat island

local circulation

roughness

urbanization

convection

FOREST CLIMATES

oversaturated air

turbulence heat exchange

active surface

ISLAND CLIMATES

breezes

daily amplitude of meteorological characteristic

orography

windward slope

annual amplitude of meteorological characteristic

HISTORY OF THE EARTH'S CLIMATIC CHANGES

ancient supercontinents (Gondwana, Pangaea)

biostratigraphy

catastrophism

continental drift

Earths ancient climates

feedback mechanism

forcing factors

glacial or ice ages

greenhouse effect

interglacial

Little climatic optimum

Little Ice Age

Medieval warming

Mesozoic climate

Messinian salinity crisis

Milankovitch theory

orbital variations

palaeothermometry

Pre-Cenozoic climate

Pre-Pleistocene climate

sea-floor spreading

the Holocene climatic optimum

uniformitarianism.

abrupt climatic change

HISTORY OF PLANETARY AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

albedo of the earth atmosphere system

astronomical factors

celestial body impacts

climate system

continental crust

continental drift

eccentricity of the earths orbit

forcing factors

global temperature

greenhouse effect

obliquity

plate tectonics

precession

regression

sea floor spreading

sea level variations

solar constant

solar luminosity or solar brightness

surface albedo

transgression

transparency of the atmosphere

volcanic eruptions

HISTORY OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION

ancient atmosphere

archean time

benthic/planktonic foraminifera

cambrian time

carbon cycle

carbon dioxide

cenozoic atmosphere

denitrification/nitrification

deoxidizing of the atmosphere

evolution of the atmosphere

gaia hypothesis

geochemical cycle

homeostasis of the earths biosphere

ice cores

ice sheets

isotopic ratio

methane

nitrate

oceanic circulation

oceanic cores

phanerozoic atmosphere

ppbv

ppmv

precambrian time

productivity of the ocean

secondary atmosphere

sediment

stromatolites

suns luminosity

the holocene

the lgm

the younger dryas event

ultraviolet radiation

upper mantle of the earth

GLOBAL CLIMATIC CATASTROPHES (VOLCANISM AND IMPACT EVENTS)

asteroids

astroblems

catastrophic events

global and local catastrophic events

impact events

mass extinction

meteorite craters

natural catastrophes

nuclear explosions

stormy fires

stratosphere

stratospheric aerosols

troposphere

tropospheric aerosol

tsunami

types of volcanic eruptions

uniformitarianism

volcanic dust

volcanism

anthropogenic climatic catastrophes

CHANGES IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

anthropogenic perturbations of natural cycles

carbon and sulfur

exchange of carbon between atmosphere and ocean

geological cycle

global carbon cycle

linkages between cycles of carbon and silicon

natural cycles

nitrogen cycle

reservoirs and fluxes of carbon and other elements

terrestrial biomass

GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS AND OZONE LAYER

aerosols

gases

lifetime

ozone.

relative humidity

sink

source

water vapor

CARBON DIOXIDE

annual growth rate.

concentration

greenhouse effect

ocean

trend

METHANE

animal waste

concentration

fossil fuel

greenhouse effect

hydroxyl

trend

wetlands

HALOCARBONS

alternative compounds

concentration

lifetime.

montreal protocol

ozone depletion

trend

NITROUS OXIDE

animal waste

biomass burning

concentration

greenhouse effect

oceans

soils

trend

TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND RELATED TRACE GASES

carbon monoxide

catalytic cycles

chlorine compounds

concentration

hydrogen radicals

nitrogen oxides

photolysis

trend

PHYSICS OF AEROSOLS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CLIMATE

clouds

concentration

greenhouse effect

mineral aerosol

soot

sulfate aerosol

trend

REDUCTION OF THE OZONE LAYER

catalytic cycles

chlorine compounds

concentration

greenhouse effect

ozone hole

stratosphere

total ozone column

trend

NATURAL DISASTERS

blizzard

cyclone

drought

dust storm

earthquake

flood

forest fire

glacier surges

glaze

hail

high water

hoarfrost

hurricane

landfall

landslide

mudflow

rockburst

seismic hazard

snow avalanche

snowstorm

tsunami

typhoon

volcanic eruption

whirlwind

GEOLOGICAL CATASTROPHES

earthquake

earthquake's source

economical damage.

elastic energy

mechanical stress

rockbursts

tsunami waves

volcanic eruptions

THE NATURE OF EARTHQUAKES

earthquake

earths crust

epicenter

fault

hypocenter

intensity

magnitude

mantle

mercalli scale

paleoseismology

plate boundary

plate tectonics

richter scale

rupture zone

EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS INCLUDING STRONG EARTHQUAKES

amplitude

arrival time

earthquake

epicenter

focal mechanism

hypocenter

magnitude

pick ground acceleration.

INDUCED SEISMICITY

earthquake

induced seismicity

magnitude

natural impact

seismic hazard

seismic source

technogenic impact.

trigger

SEISMIC ZONING

earthquake hazard

seismic effect

seismic zoning

seismicity

source zone

SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND GEODYNAMIC ZONING PREDICTIONS

asthenosphere

earthquake

lithosphere

mantle

network

seismic station

seismogram

TSUNAMIS: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, PREDICTION, AND RESPONSE

generation

oceanic earthquake

oscillating structures.

seaquake

tsunami

VOLCANISM: GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVES

abyssal hill.

active volcano

caldera

crater

explosive index

extinct volcano

fracture zone

geocyncline

guyot

lava

lava plateau

magma

magma chamber

orogeny

platform

stratovolcano

tholeiite basalt

volcanic eruption

volcanism

volcano

VOLCANISM: HISTORICAL AND HUMAN PERSPECTIVES

volcanic catastrophes

volcanic eruptions

volcanic explosion

volcanic hazards

volcanism

CLIMATE-RELATED HAZARDS

atmospheric front

atmospheric whirls

cyclone

drought

dust storm

flood

forecast

frost

hot

human perception

insurance

legislation

mountains

planetary waves

precipitation

reservoir

river

scale

sea coast

snow fall

wind.

atmosphere

DROUGHTS: CAUSES, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSEQUENCES

climatic variability

drought

dryness

el-nio

evapotranspiration

meteorological drought

moisture balance

palmer index

potential evapotranspiration

precipitation

soil drought

soil moisture

southern oscillation

DRY WINDS, DUST STORMS, AND PREVENTION OF DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

airborne dust transport

desertification

drought

dry wind

duststorm

land degradation

sandstorm

wind erosion

CYCLONES, HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TORNADOES

atmospheric fronts

extratropical and tropical cyclones

natural disasters

tornadoes

vortex flows.

atmospheric circulation

NATURAL HAZARDS CAUSED BY SOLID PRECIPITATION

falling (solid) precipitation

glazed frost

hail

icing

low-level snow drifting

overall snow drifting

rime

rime sleet

rime-precipitation

snowdrifts

snowstorm

snowstorm transport

upper snow drifting

glaze

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODS

flash flood

flood

ice gorge

icing

inundation

mudflow

river

storm surge

tide

tsunami

wave.

FLOODS AND SOIL EROSION

erosion

arroyo

flood

gully

ravine

rill

sheet erosion.

FLOOD CONTROL FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF FLOODS

control

dam

dike (dyke)

embankment

flood

flood damage

flood loss

levee.

FOREST FIRES AND DYNAMICS OF FOREST COVER

burns

carbon emission

crown fire

deforestation

forest fore

forest protection service

forest regeneration cycle

landscape fire

pyrogenic successions

pyrophytes

surface fire

taiga.

FIRES IN STEPPES AND SAVANNAS

burning as amelioration of pastures

campos

cerrado

chaparral

grasslands

lianos

maquis

mediterranean type of vegetation

pampas

phriganic

prairies

pyrogenic fluctuation

pyrogenic successions of grasslands

savannas

stepped fires

velds.

SUB-SURFACE PEAT FIRES

drainage

Holocene period

hygroscopic capacity of mosses

peat

peat deposits

peat fires.

underground fire

bog

MOUNTAIN DISASTERS

avalanche air wave

avalanche hazard

glacier flood

glacier surge

glacier-dammed lakes

landfall (fault)

landslide

mudflow danger

mudflow stream

pulsation of glaciers

slope processes

snow avalanche

LANDS SLIDES AND ROCK FALLS

decerption

downfall

failure

landslide accumulation

landslide body

scarp

slope

slope deposits

solifluction

stability of slope

creep

MUDFLOWS

glacial mudflow

mud torrent

mudflow

mud-stone torrent

water-ice flow

water-snow flow

water-stone flow

zone of the mudflow formation

zone of the mudflow transit

alluvial fan of mudflow

SNOW AVALANCHES

anti-avalanche constructions

avalanche air wave

avalanche body

avalanche catchment

avalanche evacuation cone

avalanche hazard

avalanche site

avalanche swath

snow avalanche

snow slab

wet avalanche

ICE SLIDES AND GLACIER SURGES

degradation zone

evacuation zone

front of growing activity

glacier failures

glacier pulsation

glacier-dammed lake

outflow zone

restoration stage

stage of surging

surge

surging glacier

zone of growing activity.

HIGH ENERGY ASTRONOMY FROM THE GROUND

cosmic rays

gamma-rays

neutrinos

Nonthermal Universe

EXPLORATIONS IN SPACE ASTRONOMY IN THE SPACE AGE

Apollo Program

Asteroids

Comets

Dwarf Planets

Jupiter

Lunar

Lunar Landing

Mars

Mercury

Moon

Neptune

Probes

Saturn

Soviet Lunar Probes

Soviet Plans

System

Uranus

Satellites

Solar

Sun

Venus

THE MOTION OF CELESTIAL BODIES

non-gravitational forces

perturbations

planets

satellites

space probes

three-body orbits

tides

two-body orbits

celestial mechanics

OUR SUN: THE NEAREST STAR

chromosphere

convection zone

corona

Heating the corona

Helioseismology

heliosphere

magnetic sun

photosphere

Solar activity

solar cycle

solar rotation

Solar wind

Sun on the Earth

Transition zone

radiative zone

PLANETS OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

Asteroids

Dwarf Planets

Planets

Plutoids

Satellites

Small Bodies

Trans-Neptunian Objects

Solar System

EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

asteroids

astrometry

comets

earth like planets

eccentricity

giant planets

habitability zone

hot Jupiters

hot Neptunes

Kuiper belt

microlensing

Nebula

Oort cloud

photometry

radial velocity

rings

spectroscopy.

Telluric planets

transit

Protosolar

ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

Active Galactic Nuclei

Black holes

evolution

galaxies

Quasars

DARK MATTER

clusters of galaxies

galaxies

large-scale structure of the Universe

Dark matter

EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE - STANDARD BIG BANG MODEL

black holes

cosmic inflation

Cosmic Microwave Background

Dark Energy

Dark Matter

gravitational lensing

Relativity

“LET THERE BE LIGHT”: THE EMERGENCE OF STRUCTURE OUT OF THE DARK AGES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

First Stars

high-redshift galaxies

Intergalactic medium

Reionization

Dark Ages

ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES IN ASTRONOMY

Astronomical Signal

Environmental Challenges

Geophysical Observatories

Near Infrared Astronomy

Optical

Planetary Protection

Radio Observatories

Detection

GEOGRAPHY

environmental change

landscapes

milieu

natural science

regional approach

social science

spatial patterns

FOUNDATIONS OF GEOGRAPHY

dilemma between physical and human geography

diversification of subject matters

regions

Modern geographic approach

MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

environmental geography

geographical writing

modern geography

travel writing

History of geography

THEORY AND METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY

field work

historicism

naturalism

sampling.

systematic

Regional

GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

citizenship

curriculum development

environmental education

geographical education

pedagogy

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

biogeochemical cycles

biogeography

climatology

coastal systems

geomorphology

global environmental change

holocene epoch

hydrology

landscape ecology

mountain geoecology

natural hazards

physical geography

pleistocene epoch

quaternary period

soil geography

GEOMORPHOLOGY

geoecology

geomorphology

klimagenetische geomorphologie

landform

paleoclimatology

process geomorphology

relief

structural geomorphology

weathering

CLIMATE AS LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEMS: A CLIMATOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

acclimation

acclimatization

adaptation

agriculture

climate

climate change

climate classification

climate index

climatic variability

climatology

climatotherapy

phonology

vulnerability

HYDROLOGY

Climate Change.

droughts

floods

hydrological cycle

paleohydrology

water quality

water resources

water

BIOGEOGRAPHY

biogeography

biological conservation

distribution patterns

ecology

ecosystem management

ecosystems

evolution

SOIL GEOGRAPHY

degradation

erosion

fertility

humus

leaching

soil genesis

Soil horizon

COASTAL SYSTEMS

coastal geomorphology

coastal systems

morphodynamic systems

THE OCEAN SYSTEM

coastal management

deep-ocean management

ocean biological diversity

ocean ecosystem

ocean governance

ocean jurisdiction

ocean resources

ocean sustainable development

ocean uses

regional seas management

MOUNTAIN GEOECOLOGY. THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLECTUALLY-BASED SCHOLARSHIP INTO A POLITICAL FORCE FOR SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

agenda 21

earth summit

ecosystem modeling

geoecology

high-energy environment

highland lowland interactions

international mountain society.

landschaftscologie

mountain culture

mountain hazards

stability/instability

sustainable mountain development

vegetation belts

NATURAL HAZARDS

catastrophe

complex emergency

disaster

emergency

mitigation

natural hazard

risk

vulnerability

LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION: HISTORY, NATURE, CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND SOLUTIONS

climate change

complexity

environmental quality indicators

human actions

integrated solutions

irrigation

measurement

planning

population growth

regions.

research

salinization

socio-economic consequences

urbanization

waterlogging

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

culture

description

economy

explanation

geography

location

perception

population

social sciences

understanding.

POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

ageing

demographic structure

demographic transition

demography

emigration

fecundity

geographical systems

immigration

mortality

new geographies

population geography

way of life.

CULTURAL AND SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY

communication

culture

environment

factorial ecology

landscape

marxism

naturalism

neo-positivism

phenomenology

positivism

society

techniques

urban ecology

AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL GEOGRAPHY

agrarian structure

agricultural geography

conservation.

countryside

development

employment

environment

farm

housing

population

recreation

rural geography

services

settlement

tourism

transport

GEOGRAPHY OF INDUSTRY AND TRANSPORT

agglomeration

division of labor

enterprise

external economies

industrial districts

local development

logistics

networks

GEOGRAPHY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

clustering

digital economy

economic activities

economic spaces

globalization

knowledge-based economy

localization

regional innovation systems

sustainable industrialization

URBAN GEOGRAPHY

first and third world urbanization

globalization

megacities.

metropolitan areas

urban geography

urban governance

urban segregation

urban sustainability

MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY

disease

environment

geographic information systems

health geography

medical geography

medical resources

place

policy

spatial modelling.

spatial statistics

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

geopolitics

history

political geography

situation at present

GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM

coastal areas

economy

environment

geography

impacts

leisure

place

planning

politics

recreation

social

space

sustainability

temporary mobility

tourism

transport, technology

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

continental region

cultural region

milieu theory

natural region

nodal region

pays

polarised space.

region

regional atlas

regional identity

regional science

TECHNICAL GEOGRAPHY.CORE CONCEPTS IN THE MAPPING SCIENCES

cognitive mapping

coordinate systems

data merging

digital revolution

ellipsoids

generalization

global spatial data initiatives

information theory

scientific visualization

World Wide Web

approaches to cartography

GEODESY AND TOPOGRAPHY

control point network

DTM

ellipsoid

geoid

global positioning system

map projection

marginal data

relief representation

survey

topographic map

MAPPING AND ATLAS PRODUCTION

atlas

atlas information systems

base map

data quality

map

map types

map use

mapping

REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS

electromagnetic energy and spectrum

pixels

remote sensing systems

satellites

sensors

spatial resolution

temporal resolution

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

attribute and positional accuracy

data quality components: lineage

geographical information systems

GIS operators

internet

metadata

opengis

MODELING GEOGRAPHICAL SYSTEMS AND PREDICTION

modeling

prediction

public policy

quantitative revolution

relevance

scale

GEOLOGY

astronomical climate control

historical review

layout of theme

meteoritic bombardment

model theory

petrological theory

philosophical aspects

plate tectonics

THE ORGANIZED EARTH

cracking

fractal

impact

self-organization

tectonics

volcanic eruption

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS

crust

mineralogy

petrography

petrology

rock classification

USING THE EARTH TO MEASURE TIME

fossils

strata

uniformitarianism

EARTH AS A PLANET

geoid

magnetic field.

mars

mercury

moon

plate tectonics

solar system

venus

THE EVOLUTION OF LANDSCAPE

geomorphology

glaciers, rivers

landscape

THE HAZARDOUS EARTH

earthquake

hazard

landslide

risk

tsunami

volcano

TECTONICS AND GEODYNAMICS

geodynamics

geophysics

mechanics

rheology

tectonics

GEODYNAMICS: RECENT ADVANCES IN QUANTITATIVE MODELING OF COMPRESSIONAL OROGENS

erosion

mantle dynamics

numerical modeling

orogen

tectonics

rheology

PLATE TECTONICS

hot spot

lithosphere

plate margin

plate tectonics

RHEOLOGY OF ROCKS IN NATURAL TECTONIC PROCESSES

brittle fracture

calcite deformation

constitutive equation

creep

deformation maps

friction

hydrostatic pressure

lithostatic pressure

olivine deformation

quartz deformation

rock deformation

strength profile

tectonics

GEOCHRONOLOGY

ages

Ar-Ar

C-14

concordia

dating, radiocarbon

disequilibrium

geochronology

geohygrometers

isochron

isotopes

K-Ar

metamorphism

microtextures

mineralogy

plateau

radioactivity

recrystallization

U-Pb

U-series

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

deformation

faults

folds

modeling

strain

stress

NEOTECTONICS

active tectonics

andes

archeoseismology

borehole breakouts

central asia

dendrochronology

east africa

geodesy

mass movements

morphotectonics

neotectonics

numerical modeling

paleo-altimetry

paleoclimate

paleoseismology

pediments

remote sensing

river terraces

sclerochronology

sea - level change

stress field

structural geology

tectonic geomorphology

vanuatu

volcanic dykes

IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY

AFC

anatexis

andesite

basalt

cataclastic metamorphism

climate

continent formation

crust

dynamothermal metamorphism

element mobility

fractional crystallization

geothermal energy

isochemical processes

magma assimilation

magma composition

magma density

magma mixing

magma temperature

magma viscosity

magmatic differentiation

magmatism

metamorphic facies

metamorphism

metasomatism

ore deposits

ore deposits

partial melting

peridotite

plate tectonics

rhyolite

sea-floor metamorphism

thermal metamorphism

upper mantle

volcanism

OCCURRENCE, TEXTURE, AND CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

crystal twinning

crystal zoning

extrusion

felsic glass

intergrowth

intrusion

IUGS

lava

mafic

magma

mineral

modal composition (mode)

normative composition (norm)

nucleation

plutonic

polarizing microscope

pyroclast

texture

thin section

viscosity

volcanism.

THE MANTLE AND ITS PRODUCTS

asthenosphere

basalts

core

D layer

decompression melting

geothermal gradient

layered earth

lithosphere

mantle solidus

noble gases

peridotite

subduction

viscosity

xenoliths

PROCESSES OF MAGMA EVOLUTION AND MAGMATIC SUITES

chemical differentiation

compositional trends

crystallization

magma chamber

magma formation

magma series

magma types

melting

nutrient elements

residence time

ROLE OF FLUIDS IN IGNEOUS PETROGENESIS

anatexis

andesite

basalt

climate

CO2

crust

crystallization

density

fluid

fugacity

geothermal energy.

H2O

immiscibility

magma

ore deposits

partial melting

pegmatites

peridotite

pressure

rhyolite

saturation

silicate melt

temperature

undersaturation

upper mantle

volatiles

ORIGIN, TEXTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS

assemblage

fabric

foliation

gneissose banding

index mineral

isograd

lineation

lithosphere

metamorphic facies

metasomatism

orogenic belt

schistosity

aluminosilicates

PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, FLUID PRESSURE CONDITIONS OF METAMORPHISM

fluid

metamorphism

pressure

temperature

ULTRAMETAMORPHISM AND CRUSTAL ANATEXIS

agmatite

anatexis

anti-clockwise PT path

clockwise PT path

collision

crust

decompression

dehydration

diatexite

ductile

embrittlement

extension

granite

granododiorite

leucosome

liquidus

melanosome

melting

mesosome

metatexite

migmatite

neosome

orogenesis

paleosome

peraluminous

restite

solidus

subduction

tonalite

trondhjemite

water-deficient

water-saturated

within-plate

BEHAVIOR OF TRACE ELEMENTS DURING MAGMA GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

accessory minerals

basalt

fractional crystallization

fractionation equations

granite

igneous petrogenesis

laser-ablation ICPMS

partial melting

tectonic discrimination

trace elements

APPLICATIONS OF ISOTOPES TO IGNEOUS PETROGENESIS

crustal recycling

decay series

fractionation

igneous petrology

isochron

isotopes

magma chamber

mantle

radiogenic isotopes

stable isotopes

subduction.

Cosmogenic nuclides

MANTLE DYNAMICS AND PLATE KINEMATICS

antarctica

asthenosphere

backarc basin

core

decollement

earths rotation

foredeeps

foreland monocline

geodynamics

gravity field

greenland

ice mass instability

lithosphere

mantle

orogens

plate kinematics

pleistocene deglaciation

rheology

rift zones

rollback

subduction zone

transform faults.

transition zone

viscosity

westward drift

SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY

environmental change

facies analysis

natural resources

sedimentary rocks

sedimentology

sequence stratigraphy

stratigraphy

SEDIMENTATION AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

building materials

carbonate rocks

clastic rocks

diagenesis

evaporates

exogenic processes

history of geology

hydrocarbon

lithology

resources

rock classification

sedimentary basin

sediments

STRATIGRAPHY AND RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY

chronostratigraphy

environmental changes

geochronology

geologic history

GLOBAL SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY

resources

sedimentary processes

sedimentary rocks

strata

stratigraphic record

time scale

GLOBAL SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY

environmental changes

resources

sedimentary rocks

sedimentary processes

EVOLUTIONARY PALEONTOLOGY

evolution

evolutionary behavior

evolutionary rules

evolutionary trends

fossil record

history of paleontology

mass extinctions

paleobiology

paleontology

INTRODUCTION TO THE MINERALOGICAL SCIENCES

analytical methods

applied mineralogy

archeometry

crystal chemistry

crystallography

electron microprobe

environmental mineralogy

experimental mineralogy

fields in mineralogy

geomicrobiology

history of mineralogy

mineral

mineral spectroscopy

mineral structure

mineralogical principles

ore mineralogy

petrology

physical and chemical properties of minerals

rock-forming minerals

silicates

symmetry

thermodynamics

X-ray diffraction

THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF MINERALS

chemical bond

crystal

crystal chemistry

crystal class

crystal structure

crystal system

incommensurate structures

lattice

Pauling=s rules

point group

space group

symmetry

symmetry elements

translation group

mineral

MODERN XRD METHODS IN MINERALOGY

diffractometer

neutron radiation

powder diffraction

single crystal diffraction

structure determination

structure refinement.

synchrotron radiation

ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS

beam methods

bulk methods

electron microprobe analysis

minerals

elemental analysis

THERMODYNAMICS OF MINERALS AND MINERAL REACTIONS

continuous reaction

discontinuous reaction

entropy

equilibrium

Gibbs energy

isograd

mineral reaction

mole fraction

oxygen fugacity

pseudosections

self-consistent thermodynamics

solid solution

solvus

thermobarometer

thermodynamic calculation

thermodynamic database

thermometer

barometer

EXPERIMENTAL MINERALOGY AND MINERAL PHYSICS

atomic diffusion

birefringeance

diamond-anvil cell

dielectric polarization

elasticity

electric and thermal conductivity

experimental mineralogy, mineral transformations

exsolution

high-pressure autoclaves

in-situ measurements

large-volume presses

mineral physics

optical activity

order-disorder

physical anisotropy

piezoelectricity

polymorphism

pyroelectricity

refractive index

static and dynamic pressure generation

structure-property relations

tensor formalism

thermal expansion

transport properties

ORE MINERALOGY

elements

epigenetic

hydrothermal

magmatic

ore deposits

ore minerals

oxides

placer

reflected microscopy.

skarn

sulphides

syngenetic

vein

APPLIED MINERALOGY AND THE INDUSTRIAL USE OF MINERALS

applied mineralogy

ceramics

chemical analysis

ma- terials

materials development

materials properties

materials science

mineral deposits

mineral processing

phase analysis

technical mineralogy

CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL DEPOSITS

base metals

chromite

diamonds

gold

industrial minerals

iron

manganese

mineral deposits

ECONOMIC MINERALS: A REVIEW OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND OCCURRENCE

description

economic minerals

gemstones

industrial minerals

occurrence

ore minerals

IRON AND MANGANESE ORE DEPOSITS: MINERALOGY GEOCHEMISTRY, AND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

exploration

iron

metallogenesis

ore deposits

reserves

manganese

CHROMITE-PLATINUM-GROUP ELEMENT MAGMATIC DEPOSITS

geotectonic setting

magmatic ore deposits

platinum-group elements

chromite

GEOLOGY OF BASE METAL DEPOSITS

base metals

copper

grade-tonnage

hydrothermal

igneous

lead

manto

mineral deposit type

mississippi valley-type

orebody

porphyry copper

sandstone-lead

sedimentary

sedimentary exhalative

skarn

stratiform

vein

volcanogenic massive sulfide

zinc

GOLD DEPOSITS

epithermal

gold, alluvial

hydrothermal

magmatic

mesothermal

orogenic

TYPES OF NONMETALLIC ORE- MINERAL RESOURCES

aggregates

chemicals

construction

demand

evaporites

geology

sources

supply

trends

uses

industrial minerals

DIAMONDS, KIMBERLITES AND LAMPROITES

gems

industrial minerals

kimberlite

lamproite

diamond

MINERAL RESOURCES: NATURE'S MOST VERSATILE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

demand

exploration

geology

metallogeny

metals

mining

ores

raw materials

recycling

replenishment

reserves

resources

supply

sustainability

minerals

REGIONAL GEOLOGY

map

orogen

regional geology

tectonic

GEOLOGY OF EUROPE

active tectonics

continental crust

crustal growth

earth history

hydrocarbon

plate tectonics

resources

seismic risk

tectonics

volcanism

THE GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF AFRICA

african geology

african rift

archaean cratons

hot spots

pan african orogen

plume activity

GEOLOGY OF ASIA

altaids

asian geology

himalayan orogen

indus-yarlung suture

red river fault

tethysides

tibetan plateau

tien shan

ural

THE GEOLOGY OF AUSTRALIA

albany-fraser

arunta

australia

bowen basin

capricorn

geology

lachlan foldbelt

musgrave

new england foldbelt

pilbara

sydney basin

yilgarn

THE GEOLOGY OF NORTH AMERICA

antler

appalachians

atlantic passive margin

basin and range

canada

canadian shield

central america

cordillera

cuba

geology

gulf of mexico

hawaiian hotspot

innuitian mobile belt

laramide

mexico

north america

ouachita fold and thrust belt

rio grande rift

san andreas fault

sevier

somona

united states

yellowstone hotspot

THE GEOLOGY OF SOUTH AMERICA

andes

cratons

geology

panafrican/brasiliano orogeny

patagonia

south america

south american platform

western gondwana

THE GEOLOGY OF ANTARCTICA

antarctica

arc magmatism

beacon

ferrar

geology

glaciers

maud

napier

pan-african

rayner

rifting

ross orogeny

shield

uplift

wilkes

COAL, OIL, AND GAS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

beam methods

bulk methods

coal

consumption

depletion elemental analysis

electron microprobe analysis

minerals

natural gas

oil

production

reserves

resources

PETROLEUM (OIL AND GAS) GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES

natural gas

oil

petroleum

reserve

resource

COAL GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES

coal

coal bed gas

exploration

geology

macerals

mining

reserves

resources

COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING GEOLOGY

borehole logging

deposit evaluation

drilling

environmental impacts

exploration

geology

geophysical methods

mining

quality assessment

reserves

resources

Coal

METHODS OF EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES

drilling

exploration

geophysics

natural gas

oil

petroleum geology

seismology

well log

INTRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

aerial photographs

aquifers

construction materials

dams and dam sites

desk studies

digging

dispersal of precipitation

drilling and blasting

earthquakes

embankments

footings

gases

gases

geohazards

geological conditions

geological maps

geology and planning

geophysical exploration

ground improvement

ground movements

ground treatment

groundwater

groundwater control

hazard zoning and maps

hazardous waste

highway construction

hydrological cycle

in situ testing

irrigation

land degradation and restoration

landfill construction

leachate

maps

marine action and tsunamis

mass movements

mine effluents

mineral dusts

open excavation

origin of soil

piles

pollution

preliminary reconnaissance

radioactive waste

rafts

remote imagery

reservoirs

ripping

risk assessment and hazard reduction

river action and flooding

sanitary landfills

site characterization

slope stability

soil erosion and conservation

spontaneous combustion

subsidence

subsurface exploration

tunneling

types of waste

underground storage chambers

volcanic activity

waste material

water quality

wells

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND PLANNING

geohazards

geological maps

geology and planning

land restoration

risk assessment and hazard reduction

NATURAL HAZARDS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

earthquakes

hazard zoning and maps

injurious gases

marine action and tsunamis

mass movements

river action and flooding

soluble rocks

volcanic activity

wind action and arid regions

SOILS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

fertility

origin of soil

physical properties

problem soils

soil erosion and conservation

soil surveys

soil types

WATER RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

aquifers

conjunctive use

dams and dam sites

dispersal of precipitation

geological conditions

groundwater

hydrological cycle

irrigation

reservoirs

safe yield

water quality

wells

MINING AND THE ENVIRONMENT

acid mine drainage

gases

hazard maps

heap leaching

land degradation

mineral dusts

open pits

opencast mining

restoration

spoil heaps

spontaneous combustion

Subsidence

tailings lagoons

WASTE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

contaminated land and groundwater

gases

geological and hydrogeological conditions

hazardous waste

landfill construction

leachate

radioactive waste

remedial measures

sanitary landfills

site characterization

types of waste

underground storage chambers

LAND EVALUATION AND SITE ASSESSMENT

aerial photographs

desk studies

geographical information systems

geophysical exploration

in situ testing

land capability studies

maps

preliminary reconnaissance

remote imagery

site investigation

subsurface exploration

terrain evaluation

GEOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION

digging

drilling and blasting

embankments

footings

geological conditions

ground improvement

ground movements

ground treatment

groundwater control

highway construction

piles

rafts

reinforced earth

ripping

slope stability

stand-up time

tunnel support

tunneling

tunneling methods

open excavation

GROUNDWATER: PLANNING AND PROTECTION

groundwater contamination

groundwater contamination risk

groundwater contamination vulnerability

groundwater exploitation

groundwater resource

hydrogeochemistry

hydrogeology

groundwater

MIDDLE EAST METEOROLOGY

Arid and sub arid climate

Circulation systems.

Climate change

Dust storm

Middle East Meteorology

PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY

aerosol

charge separation

cloud-particle

graupel

Deep convection

TROPICAL SYNOPTIC METEOROLOGY

easterly waves

ENSO

intertropical convergence zone

Kelvin wave

Madden-Julian oscillation

mixed Rossby-gravity wave

monsoon

trade winds

tropical cyclone

Walker circulation

water vapor transport

Hadley cell

OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTION AND TROPICAL CLIMATE

climate variability

clouds

Intertropical convergence zone

surface evaporation

tropical climate

ocean-atmospheric feedback

INTRASEASONAL OSCILLATION

convection

Madden-Julian Oscillation

SOUTH CHINA SEAS METROLOGY

Meteorology

SCS summer monsoon

SCS winter monsoon

typhoon activity over the SCS

The South China Sea (SCS)

METEOROLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE TROPICS: SEVERE CONVECTIVE STORMS AND FLASH FLOODS

Amazon

Deep Convection

Equatorial Africa

Flash Floods

Forecasting the Hazards.

hailstones

Indonesia Archipelago

Line Winds

Low Latitude

Microbursts

NECZ and SPCZ over the Oceans

Outer Rainband Annulus

Planetary

Pre-Monsoon

Sahel

severe weather

Tornadogenesis

Tropical Cyclone

Tropics

Updraft Speeds

weather hazards

Flash Floods

Last Update: 12 December 2009


Prev       Page  1  2


© Copyright 2002-2014 Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems.
|  Terms of Use & Disclaimer  |   Privacy Policy  |