Air, Water, Sediment and Soil
Pollution Modelling
Edited by : Bhaskar Nath,
European Center
for Pollution Research, UK 
Air, Water, Sediment and Soil Pollution and Modelling
Bhaskar Nath, European Center for Pollution Research, UK
1. Current Problems of Air, Water and Soil Pollution.
(Introduction to air, water and soil pollution. Some of the manmade
chemical pollutants of growing concern such as polychlorinated biphenyls, metals
and organics, halogenated aliphatics, monocyclic aromatics, endocrine
disrupters, etc. Global problems of global warming and climate change;
stratospheric ozone depletion; ocean acidification; loss of biodiversity;
population growth, human greed and openended aspiration and standard of living.
Characteristic behaviour of complex nonlinear environmental systems; example of
the Euler Strut Thermodynamics of equilibrium  first and second laws of
hermodynamics; Gibb’s Free Energy and equilibrium. The Earth as a living
biogeochemical entity; its carrying capacity and selfregenerative capacity (SRC)
using the Malthusian paradigm in Economics)
2. Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Air, Water and Soil
(Principal transport mechanisms such as advection, dispersion, sediment
transport and compartmentalization. Simple models of pollutant transport. Mass
balance equation  plugflow system in rivers as an example. Steadystate
material balance. Transport processes  advection, diffusion and film theory
of mass transfer. Diffusion of momentum; fluidsolid interface; Langmuir, BET
and Freundlich isotherms. Fluidfluid interface; ideal, nonideal and ionic
solutions; sedimentwater interface).
3. Modelling in General and Environmental Modelling in
Particular
(Historical background; scope and purpose of system modelling; conceptual
models; physical models, mathematical models; analogue and digital approaches to
mathematical modelling of environmental systems; pollution in rivers;
contamination of groundwater; climate change and general circulation models)
4. Mathematics for system modelling in one two and three
dimensions
(Integral and differential approaches to modelling. Integral equation
approach  introduction to “Green’s Function” and the “Kernal Function”,
Fredholm integral equations and the Volterra equation. Integral equations of the
first (eigenvalue) and second kind; reduction to the matrix form; Introduction
to the differential form; the Field Equations  the Laplace Equation, the
Poisson Equation, the Diffusion Equation and the Schrödinger Equation in one,
two and three dimensions. Strategies for the numerical solution of these
equations using the Finite Difference Method, the Finite Element Method, and the
Finite Volume Method. Reduction to the matrix form. Treatment of Dirichlet,
Neumann and mixed boundary conditions).
5. Air Pollution  Causes, Effects and Control
(Structure of the atmosphere; mixing and circulation. Temperature profile
across the atmosphere; velocity and temperature profiles of the Boundary Layer
and its main functions. Wet and dry deposition. Main primary and secondary air
pollutants, how they are caused (major point and nonpoint sources) , and
strategies for their control; transportation and dispersion of pollutants in the
Boundary Layer; effects of air pollutants on ecosystems and human and animal
health. Risk assessment. Air quality standards and other control strategies).
6. Air Pollution Modelling
(Historical background. Global, regional and nonhydrostatic model. The
governing equations; equations of motion in spherical coordinates;
discretization of the problem domain and problem formulation using numerical
procedures such as the Finite Element Method and/or the Finite Volume Method.
Initial and boundary conditions and their numerical treatmen. Determination of
dispersion parameters for use in Gaussian models of point source dispersion.
Description of the Phoenics Air Pollution modelling software and of how it does
what it does. A typical application of the Phoenics package).
7. Water Pollution  Causes, Effects and Treatment
(Contamination of surface water: surface water runoff and stream flow;
chemical and biological processes that degrade surface waters and the kinetics
of these processes; main pollutants in domestic and industrial wastewaters;
mechanisms of pollutant transport (sediment relocation and pore water
processes); main impacts of polluted water on ecosystems and human and animal
health. Primary wastewater treatment (sedimentation, flocculation and settling);
secondary wastewater treatment (aerated lagoon, activated sludge); tertiary
wastewater treatment (adsorption, filtration, stripping, ion exchange and
membrane processes).
8. Water Pollution Modelling
(Models of the dynamics of pollutants in surface waters (the Lake Model, the
Stream Model and the Basic Model). Mass balance equation of pollutants in
rivers; the modified StreeterPhelps Equation; dissolved oxygen. Groundwater
contaminants: Darcy’s law and equation of motion; equation governing solute
transport; biofilm and bioavailability; biotransformations; finite element
solution of flow in a partially saturated medium using logarithmically condensed
physical space. Example of a typical problem solved with the Phoenics package).
9. Soil Pollution  Causes, Effects and Remediation
(Definition of soil pollution and how it is caused. Common organic and
inorganic soil contaminants. Permeability, porosity and other physical
properties of soil. Sediment structure and processes. Transport of contaminants
in soil. Fluid flow in fully saturated and partially saturated soil media. Main
impacts of contaminated soil on ecosystems and human and animal health. Methods
of remediation of contaminated soils: landfilling; incineration; solidification;
exsitu bioremediation; insitu remediation processes such as vacuum extraction
in the unsaturated zone; insitu bioremediation of soils; pump and treat
extraction of contaminated groundwater, etc.)
Last Update October
21, 2007
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