Civil Engineering is the component of Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias.
Civil Engineering is the oldest of the engineering specialties and has contributed very much to develop our society throughout the long history of human life. The advancement of civil engineering has, therefore, been closely related to that of civilization. In this theme, human activities on the earth from ancient times to the present are briefly reviewed first, and then the history of the process to establish the civil engineering discipline is discussed for better understanding of the important role that civil engineering has played in the growth of a mature society, from both technological and social points of view. Broad diversification of civil engineering has resulted from the enormous expansion of society during the latter half of the twentieth century. The various branches are briefly described to show the notable characters that civil engineering has formed to maintain the sustainable development of society.
The Theme on Civil Engineering with contributions from distinguished experts in the field provides the essential aspects and fundamentals of civil engineering.
The two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.
Kiyoshi Horikawa is President, Musashi Institute of Technology, and Professor Emeritus, the University of Tokyo and Saitama University, Japan. He was born in 1927 in Tokyo and received his higher education at the University of Tokyo. He then took the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor in Engineering in 1952 and 1964, respectively. In 1954 he was appointed Assistant Professor at the University of Tokyo, and became Associate Professor and Professor at the same institution in 1955 and 1967, respectively. After his retirement in 1988, he continued his work at Saitama University until February 1992. He has taken various posts successively, including Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo, 1984–6; President of JSCE, 1989–90; and President of Saitama University, 1992–8. In addition, he became President, Musashi Institute of Technology in 1998. His specialty is coastal engineering. His major interests are wave motions, including storm surges and tsunamis, nearshore currents, coastal sediment, and coastal environment protection. He has published over 100 papers and twenty-eight reference books. He has worked as a Visiting Professor in the United States, Germany, and China. He has received a number of honors and awards, including JSCE Award, 1969; International Coastal Engineering Award, ASCE, 1981; Prime Minister’s Medal for Cultural Contribution (Japan) (known as the Purple Ribbon Award), 1993; National Citation for Cultural Contributions (Japan), 1999, and others
Qizhong Guo, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,USA