Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanoscience refers to the study, manipulation and engineering of matter, particles and structures on the nanometer scale (one millionth of a millimeter, the scale of atoms and molecules). Important properties of materials, such as the electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties, are determined by the way molecules and atoms assemble on the nanoscale into larger structures. And Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscience leading to the use of
new nanomaterials and nanosize components in useful products. Nanotechnology will eventually provide us with the ability to design custom-made materials and products with new enhanced properties, new nanoelectronics components, new types of “smart” medicines and sensors.
Today's scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts. The fast growing economy in this area requires experts who have an outstanding knowledge of nanoscience in combination with the skills to apply this knowledge in new products.
This theme includes sections on History of Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology Development, Scientific bases, Nanotechnologies, Devices and Systems, and politics. The nanotechnology development goes very fast. Nowadays it is difficult to foresee all the social consequences of its development, just like in the middle of ХХ century it was impossible to predict the results of researches and engineering projects, carried out in the field of electronics and information technology. In the near future the state investments in nanotechnology researches will probably be essentially increased in the leading industrial countries of the world. The researches planned beforehand, will be
aimed at solving some specific targets, such as the idea of materialization of a microminiature storage device with multiterabit memory capacity; a million times increase of computer operating capability; the engineering of ultrastrong materials and the design of new vehicles based on the properties of these materials; the invention of genetic and medical remedies for early diagnostics (detection) and treatment of cancer and AIDS; the engineering of new environment friendly materials, etc.