### Introduction

History of Mathematics is a component of Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias.

The Theme on History of Mathematics discusses: Mathematics in Egypt and Mesopotamia; History of Trigonometryto 1550; Mathematics in Japan; The Mathematization of The Physical Sciences-Differential Equations of Nature; A Short History of Dynamical Systems Theory:1885-2007; Measure Theories and Ergodicity Problems; The Number Concept and Number Systems; Operations Research and Mathematical Programming: From War to Academia - A Joint Venture; Elementary Mathematics From An Advanced Standpoint; The History and Concept of Mathematical Proof; Geometry in The 20th Century; Bourbaki: An Epiphenomenon in The History of Mathematics

This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.

### Editor(s) Biography

Vagn Lundsgaard Hansen is born September 27, 1940 in Vejle, Denmark. He is professor of mathematics at the Technical University of Denmark since 1980, and Scientific Director of the Learning Lab at this university since August 2005. He earned a Master’s Degree in mathematics and physics from the University of Aarhus, Denmark, 1966, and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Warwick, England, 1972. He has held positions as assistant professor, University of Aarhus, 1966-69; research fellow, University of Warwick, 1969-72; associate professor, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 1972-80. He was visiting professor fall 1986, University of Maryland, College Park, US. He is the author of numerous research papers in topology, geometry, and global analysis, and author of several books including the general books “Geometry in Nature” (1993), “Shadows of the Circle” (1998) and “Matematikkens Uendelige Univers” (2002). He was chairman of the World Mathematical Year 2000 committee appointed by the European Mathematical Society 1995-2000. He is chairman of the committee for Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics appointed by the European Mathematical Society 2000-2006. He was Invited Speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians, Beijing 2002, and Invited Regular Lecturer at the 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education,Copenhagen 2004. He is President of the Danish Academy of Natural Sciences since 1984. He was elected Member of European Academy of Sciences (Brussels) 2004. He was Member of the Danish Natural Science Research Council 1992-98, four of the years as vice-chairman. He is referee for the Norwegian Research Council and INTAS.He was member of the Jury for the European Union Contest for Young Scientists in Budapest (2003), Dublin (2004) and Moscow (2005).

Jeremy Gray,
Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Open University, UK