Petroleum: Chemistry, Refining, Fuels and Petrochemicals is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias.
Petroleum and the equivalent term crude oil, cover a wide assortment of materials consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds containing variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen, which may vary widely in volatility, specific gravity, and viscosity.
This work is built up around five broad topics, the first topic is Basic providing important definitions for petroleum and related materials using the following categories: (i) materials of natural origin, (ii) manufactured materials, and (iii) materials that are integral fractions derived from the natural or manufactured products. In addition, definitions of petroleum constituents, petroleum products, heavy oil, tar sand bitumen and other naturally occurring carbonaceous species are also given. The second topic Refining describes the processes by which refining occurs and the options that allow a refinery flexibility to treat a variety of feedstocks. The third topic deals with Product treating where processes that remove these undesirable components are presented. The fourth topic Petrochemicals is any of a large group of chemicals manufactured from petroleum and natural gas as distinct from fuels and other products, derived from petroleum and natural gas by a variety of processes and used for a variety of commercial purposes. Finally, the fifth topic Petroleum Products (in contrast to petrochemicals) are those bulk fractions that are derived from petroleum and have commercial value as a bulk product. In the strictest sense, petrochemicals are also petroleum products but they are individual chemicals that are used as the basic building blocks of the chemical industry.
This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.
Dr. Speight has more than thirty years of experience in areas associated with the properties and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels. He has participated in, as well as led, significant research and development in refining heavy oil and coal, and related environmental issues. He has well over four hundred publications, reports, and presentations detailing these research activities and has taught more than forty related courses. Dr. Speight is currently editor of the journal Petroleum Science and Technology (formerly Fuel Science and Technology International) and editor of the journal Energy Sources. He is recognized as a world leader in the areas of fuels characterization and development. Dr. Speight is also Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah. Dr. Speight is the author/editor/compiler of more than twenty books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues. As a result of his work, Dr. Speight was awarded the Diploma of Honor, National Petroleum Engineering Society, For Outstanding Contributions to the Petroleum Industry in 1995 and the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) for Outstanding Work in the Area of Petroleum Science in 1996. He has also received the Specialist Invitation Program Speakers Award from NEDO (New Energy Development Organization, Government of Japan) in 1987 and again in 1996 for his Contributions to Coal Research. Dr. Speight also received the degree of Doctor of Sciences from the Scientific Research Geological Exploration Institute (VNIGRI), St. Petersburg, Russia For Exceptional Work in Petroleum Science in 1997. In 2001, Dr. Speight was also awarded the Einstein Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) in recognition of Outstanding Contributions and Service in the field of Geologic Sciences.