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Hydrological Cycle

Edited by : Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov

State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


1. Exchanges of Water in the Hydrosphere

N.V. Malinin


Transfer of Atmospheric Moisture

O.A. Drozdoff, St. Petersburg State University, Russia


Water Exchange between Oceans and Atmosphere

S. Vasiljyev, State Oceanographic Institute, Russia

V.B. Lapshin


Water Exchange between Land and Atmosphere

N.V. Malinin


Water Exchange between Plants and Atmosphere

Gennady Viktorovitch Menzhulin, Center for International Environmental Cooperation(INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences (Center INENCO), Russia


Water Exchange between Land and Oceans

N.V. Malinin


Water Exchange between Surface Water and Groundwater

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia


2. Hydrosphere Components

H. Liebscher, Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany


Hydrosphere Structure and its Relationship to the Global Hydrologic Cycle

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia


Energy Balance and the Roles of the Sun, Earth, Oceans and Atmosphere

Mikhail I. Budyko, Russian Academy of Sciences, Center for International Environmental Cooperation, INENCO,

Russia


Hydrologic Regions and Water Balance

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia


Sediment Geochemical and Biological Water Fluxes

N.N. Bobrovitskaya


Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrological Cycle

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Ocean-Land Interactions in Coastal Zones and Effect of Ocean-Level Change

N.V. Malinin

Alexander Nekrasov, Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


3. Water Balance of the Earth

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Precipitation on the Earth

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia


Evapotranspiration of the Earth

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia


River Runoff to Oceans and Lakes

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Groundwater Flow to Ocean

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia


Observation and Monitoring

Z.D. Kopaliani


4. Evaporation

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia


Evaporation in Nature

A.P. Vershinin


Evaporation from Land, Evapotranspiration

A.P. Vershinin


Evapotranspiration from Open Water Surface and Groundwater

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia


Transpiration

Gennady Viktorovitch Menzhulin, Center for International Environmental Cooperation(INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences (Center INENCO), Russia


5. Precipitation

P. Groisman, NCDC, USA


Generation of Precipitation

L.T. Matveyev, Russian Hydrometeorological University, Russia


Types and Characteristics of Precipitation

Irena I. Borzenkova, Center for International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Extreme Precipitation

L.T. Matveyev, Russian Hydrometeorological University, Russia


Snow and Its Distribution

V.A. Shutov, Valdai Branch, SHI


Artificial Rainfall

Albert A. Chernikov, Central Aerological Observatory, Russia


6. Surface Water Runoff

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Runoff Generation and Storage in Watershed

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Space Characters of Runoff Formation

A.V. Rozhdestvensky, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

V.A. Lobanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Hydrology of Sloping Terrain

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


River Runoff Modelling

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


Urban Hydrology

V.V. Kupriyanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia


7. Groundwater

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia


Infiltration and Groundwater Formation

Vladimir S. Kovalevsky, Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Groundwater of Loose (Unconsolidated) Rocks

Vladimir Alekseevich Vsevolozhsky, Geological Department, Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov, Russia


Groundwater in Sedimentary, Metamorphic and Volcanic Rock

Vladimir Alekseevich Vsevolozhsky, Geological Department, Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov, Russia


Karstic Aquifers

Vladimir S. Kovalevsky, Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


8. Glaciers and Their Significance for the Earth Nature

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Genesis and Geographical Aspects (of Glaciers)

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Classification of Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Accumulation, Ablation, Mass Balance, and Runoff from Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Flow and Fluctuation of Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Manipulation, Uses and Benefits of Glaciers, Ice and Snow

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia


Interaction Between Glaciation and Climate

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia



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