Hydrological Cycle

Edited by : Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov

State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

1. Exchanges of Water in the Hydrosphere

N.V. Malinin

Transfer of Atmospheric Moisture

O.A. Drozdoff, St. Petersburg State University, Russia

Water Exchange between Oceans and Atmosphere

S. Vasiljyev, State Oceanographic Institute, Russia

V.B. Lapshin

Water Exchange between Land and Atmosphere

N.V. Malinin

Water Exchange between Plants and Atmosphere

Gennady Viktorovitch Menzhulin, Center for International Environmental Cooperation(INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences (Center INENCO), Russia

Water Exchange between Land and Oceans

N.V. Malinin

Water Exchange between Surface Water and Groundwater

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia

2. Hydrosphere Components

H. Liebscher, Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany

Hydrosphere Structure and its Relationship to the Global Hydrologic Cycle

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia

Energy Balance and the Roles of the Sun, Earth, Oceans and Atmosphere

Mikhail I. Budyko, Russian Academy of Sciences, Center for International Environmental Cooperation, INENCO,

Russia

Hydrologic Regions and Water Balance

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia

Sediment Geochemical and Biological Water Fluxes

N.N. Bobrovitskaya

Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrological Cycle

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Ocean-Land Interactions in Coastal Zones and Effect of Ocean-Level Change

N.V. Malinin

Alexander Nekrasov, Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

3. Water Balance of the Earth

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Precipitation on the Earth

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia

Evapotranspiration of the Earth

Vladimir Ivanovich Babkin, Water Resources and Water Balance Laboratory, The State Hydrological Institute, Russia

River Runoff to Oceans and Lakes

Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Groundwater Flow to Ocean

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia

Observation and Monitoring

Z.D. Kopaliani

4. Evaporation

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia

Evaporation in Nature

A.P. Vershinin

Evaporation from Land, Evapotranspiration

A.P. Vershinin

Evapotranspiration from Open Water Surface and Groundwater

V.S. Vuglinsky, State Hydrological Institute, Russia

Transpiration

Gennady Viktorovitch Menzhulin, Center for International Environmental Cooperation(INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences (Center INENCO), Russia

5. Precipitation

P. Groisman, NCDC, USA

Generation of Precipitation

L.T. Matveyev, Russian Hydrometeorological University, Russia

Types and Characteristics of Precipitation

Irena I. Borzenkova, Center for International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Extreme Precipitation

L.T. Matveyev, Russian Hydrometeorological University, Russia

Snow and Its Distribution

V.A. Shutov, Valdai Branch, SHI

Artificial Rainfall

Albert A. Chernikov, Central Aerological Observatory, Russia

6. Surface Water Runoff

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Runoff Generation and Storage in Watershed

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Space Characters of Runoff Formation

A.V. Rozhdestvensky, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

V.A. Lobanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Hydrology of Sloping Terrain

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

River Runoff Modelling

Yury Borisovich Vinogradov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

Urban Hydrology

V.V. Kupriyanov, State Hydrological Institute (SHI), Russia

7. Groundwater

Igor Semenovich Zektser, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences: IWP RAS, Russia

Infiltration and Groundwater Formation

Vladimir S. Kovalevsky, Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Groundwater of Loose (Unconsolidated) Rocks

Vladimir Alekseevich Vsevolozhsky, Geological Department, Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov, Russia

Groundwater in Sedimentary, Metamorphic and Volcanic Rock

Vladimir Alekseevich Vsevolozhsky, Geological Department, Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov, Russia

Karstic Aquifers

Vladimir S. Kovalevsky, Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

8. Glaciers and Their Significance for the Earth Nature

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Genesis and Geographical Aspects (of Glaciers)

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Classification of Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Accumulation, Ablation, Mass Balance, and Runoff from Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Flow and Fluctuation of Glaciers

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Manipulation, Uses and Benefits of Glaciers, Ice and Snow

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Interaction Between Glaciation and Climate

Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia



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