ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES - Table of Contents

SPORT SCIENCE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

SPORT SCIENCE, HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Relevant Historical Dates On Sport Science, Physical Education And Health

Health through Movement – A Holistic Approach

Present Knowledge of Health and Human Movement

Interdisciplinary Approaches In Sport Science And Physical Education

Sport Science, Physical Education and Globalization

KINESIOLOGY - HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE

Movement in Human Life

Movement and Accompanying Emotions

Development of the Science of Kinesiology and Its Creators (Figure 1-6)

Movement in Textbooks of Kinesiology

Kinesiology - Science with Many Names

Kinesiology - Rebirth in the Best Time?

Anthropokinesiology in Universities’ Curricula

Recapitulation – Summary

SPORT AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY: PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING SUBSTANCES - ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Introduction

Anabolic Steroids: Historical Perspective

How Anabolic Steroids Work

Anabolic Steroids and Performance

Health Effects of Anabolic Steroid

Importance of Dosage

Anabolic Steroids and the Law

COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

Introduction

Comparative Education

Comparative Physical Education and Sport

Methodology

The International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport - ISCPES

Tendencies in Publications

Comparative Study in the Global World and International Development

The Future in Comparative Physical Education and Sport

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Introduction

Physical Education and Sports

A Historical Approach towards Physical Education

Physical Education Curricula and PE in Schools

Teaching and Physical Education Teaching

Estimates Concerning the Future

Conclusion

ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND INCLUSIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Introduction

People First Terminology = Sensitive Terminology

The Concept of Adapted Physical Activity

The Body of Knowledge of APA

The Concepts of Inclusion

Inclusion in Physical Education

Models of Good Practice

Conclusion and Perspectives

HEALTH AND FITNESS

Introduction

Extrinsic Factors Influencing Health and Fitness

Intrinsic Factors Influencing Health and Fitness

Conclusions and Perspectives 

LEISURE AND TOURISM

General Introduction

Historical Overview of Leisure and Tourism around the World

Educational Perspective

Career Opportunities

Challenges and Trends for the 21st Century in Leisure and Tourism

Conclusions and Perspectives

EXERCISE AND AGING

General Introduction

Effects of Aging and Exercise on Aerobic Fitness

Effects of Aging and Exercise on Cardiovascular Function

Effects of Aging and Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function

Genetic background of aging-related phenotypes

Conclusion

NEW REALMS OF AGENCY: PROMOTING PEACE EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUITY THROUGH SPORT

Introduction

New Realms of Agency: The Impact of Sport Interventions

Integrating a Gender Perspective

Racism and Xenophobia

Bridges to Understanding: Sport Activists

Sport’s Role Acknowledged by Non-Sport Affiliated Contemporary Agencies: Non-Governmental Organizations and Social Movements

Concluding Remarks – Recommendations: An All-Encompassing Hub of Information for Peace

SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

Doing Sports and Exercise: Meanings and Feelings

Sport and Exercise as a Complex Social and Psychological Phenomenon

Conceptual Framework in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Competition, Intensity, and Motivation

Mental Techniques for the Improvement of Performance

Starting, Adopting, and Maintaining Exercise Habits: Theoretical Approaches and Motivational Factors

Sport and Exercise as Means for Community Building and Community Organization

SPORT MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Strategic Management

Diversity Management

Ethical Decision Making

Sport Economics

Sport Business and Finance

Facilities and Event Management

Human Resource Management

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sport

Sport and Development

Sport Law

Sport Governance

Management of Sport in a Global Society

SOCIOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SPORT

Sociology of Sport

Philosophy of sport

SPARTIAN GAMES - THE GAME MODEL OF INTEGRATION OF SPORT AND ART

What is SpArtian Games?

Special Features and Value Of Spartian Games

SPORTS NUTRITION: AN ESSENTIAL OVERVIEW

Energy and Nutrients for Physical Activity

Sports Supplements

Weight Management

Nutritional Strategies for Training and Competitiont

Water and Electrolyte Balance

Women, Young And Elderly Athletes

THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

FLAXSEED IN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND DISEASE

Flaxseed and Its Components

Pharmacological Activity of Flaxseed and Its Components

Mechanism of Atherosclerosis

Flaxseed and Its Components on the Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis Development

Flaxseed and Its Components on Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis

Flaxseed Components and Atherosclerosis

Health Benefit

Side Effects of Flaxseed and Its Components

CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY

Historical Background Leading to Current Randomized Studies

Randomized Clinical Trials examining Carotid Endarterectomy

Carotid Endarterectomy – Surgical Technique

Trials comparing Carotid Artery Stenting with Carotid Endarterectomy

ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS

Historical Background

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Etiology

Diagnosis

Surgical Treatment

Indications for Repair

Open Repair

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Open Arterial Access Technique

Endovascular Repair of Proximal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Iliac Conduit for EVAR for Severe Occlusive Disease at the External Iliac Arteries

Fenestrated Stents

Branched Stents

Non-Resective Repair of AAA (Hacker et al 2011)

Recent Studies

Short Term Results of EVAR

DREAM Trial (Prinssen et al 2004)

DREAM Follow-Up (Blakensteijn et al 2005)

Dream Update (De Bruin et al 2010)

EVAR 1 Trial (Greenhalgh et al 2004)

EVAR 1 Trial Follow-Up (Greenhalgh et al 2005)

EVAR 1 Long-Term Results (Greenhalgh et al 2010)

EVAR 2 Trial (EVAR trial participants. 2007)

Eurostar Registry (Harris et al 2000; Laheij et al 2000)

Current FDA-Approved Endografts for AAA:

Personal Data

Endovascular Repair of an Iliac Artery Aneurysm

Endovascular Procedures in Azotemic Condition Using CO2.

MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC ISCHEMIA OF THE LOWER LIMBS

Incidence

Disease Progression

Risk Factors and Management

Pharmacotherapy

History and Physical

Diagnostics

Treatment

CAROTID ARTERY STENT AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF CAROTID DISEASE

Carotid Disease

Carotid Artery Stenting

Medical Management of Carotid Disease

Guideline Approaches

CAROTID ARTERY STENT AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF CAROTID DISEASE

Definition

Anatomy of the Obstructing Site

Diagnosis

Immediate Therapy

Thrombolysis

Surgical Treatment

The Operation

Post-Operative Assessment

Post-Operative Care

Suboptimal, Ineffective, or Wrong Treatments

Other Surgical Procedures

CURRENT MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITY VASCULAR TRAUMA

General Management of Upper and Lower Extremity Arterial Injuries

Surgical Management of Arterial Injuries

Medical Management of Arterial Injuries

Diagnostic Imaging

Associated Orthopedic Injuries

Venous Injury Repair

Fasciotomy

Upper Extremity Nerve Injuries

Soft-Tissue Deficits

Amputation

Forearm Arterial Injuries

Proximal Upper Extremity Arterial Injuries

Femoral Arterial Injuries

Popliteal Arterial Injuries

Below-Knee Arterial Injuries

Endovascular Treatment

Discussion

VASCULAR EMBOLIZATION: INDICATIONS, MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES

Permanent Larger Embolic Agents

Permanent Smaller Embolic Agents

Liguid Embolic Agents

Temporary Embolic Agents

Technique and Equipment

ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR OF THE THORACIC AORTA

Evolution of Endovascular Technology

Aortic Pathology Treated with Endovascular Grafting

Operative Strategies for Endovascular Grafting

Complications of Endovascular Grafting

Overall Outcomes

MANAGEMENT OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASE - SURGICAL PERSPECTIVE

Pathophysiology of Regurgitant and Stenotic Lesions

Aortic Valve

Mitral Valve

Tricuspid Valve

Pulmonary Valve

Infective Endocarditis

MEDICAL SCIENCES

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MEDICINE

MODERN MEDICAL PRACTICES:A COMMENTARY

Modern Medical Practices : A Commentary

Medical Practices In Economically Developed Countries

General medical practice and training of medical students

Laboratory investigations, medical malpractice and cost of health care delivery

Patients' Expectations, The 'Magic Pill Syndrome' and Lifestyle-Inflicted Illnesses

Prevention and the general practitioner

Modern medical practice and unconventional therapies

Politicians and medical practice

Modern medical practice and the pharmaceutical industry

Medical Practice In Underprivileged And Developing Countries

Indoor air pollution control as an illustration

Health care delivery in remote zones

REFLECTIONS ON THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN MEDICINE

Background

Essential methodological principles

Logical and methodological problems of clinical medicine science

Suggestions to improve medical scientific methodology

Underlying theoretical and philosophical problems of medical science

Unified methodological system for investigation in medicine

TECHNOLOGY FOR HEALTH AND MEDICINE

Introduction

Science, Technology and Medicine

Science and Technology Disparities

Health Disparities

Global Costs of Health Technology

Avenues in Technological Development

Conclusion

MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

PUBLIC HEALTH - AN EVOLVING CONCEPT

The task of Public Health and its development

The concept of health

Actual problems of the modern health care systems

The response of the modern Public Health

Shifting focus of Public Health

Principal areas of Public Health

Challenges

Forward

Concluding remarks on the health of populations and the role of Public Health

PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE

History of Surveillance

Background on the Modern Concept of Surveillance

Source of Surveillance Information

ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Introduction

Hazards and Risks Perception

Faring Classical Hazards

Emerging Risks and Global Environmental Change

Conclusion

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: A BASIC PART OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Introduction

The Historical Context

The Elements and Technologies of MCH

Indicators and Information Systems for Maternal and Child Health

The Organization and Management of MCH Services

Setting Policies for MCH and the Health of Women, Children and Families

Conclusion: The Challenges for the Future

PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW

Introduction

Public Health

Ethics

From Bioethics to Public Health Ethics

Current Challenges

Ethics for Public Health Tomorrow

THE GEOGRAPHY OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS

Defining a Health Care System

Access to Health Care Services

Restructuring Health Care Systems

New Spaces of Health Care Delivery

DISPARITIES IN HEALTH : A REFLECTION OF THE WORLDS GLOBALIZATION AND FRAGMENTATION

Introduction

Undeniable convergence

Increased globalisation of health needs

But a powerful dynamic of divergence

The singular case of sub-Saharan Africa

The rise of a global underprivileged class

Conclusion

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES: THE CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL ANALYSES

Vector-borne disease in the 21st century

Vector-borne diseases and environmental change

People, vectors and landscape: A conceptual model

Remote sensing systems: A tool for studying the environment

Remote sensing and vector-borne diseases

Spatial dimension of disease transmission and Geographical Information Systems

BIOENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF CHAGAS´ DISEASE

Introduction

Biological members and transmission dynamics of disease

Interconnection of wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles

Dynamic of domiciliation of the vectors: origin and diffusion of the disease

The rural housing as environmental problem

Bioclimatic factors of Triatominae species

Description of disease

Rates of human infection

Conclusions

MEDICAL SPECIALITIES

ADULT CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE,A CHALLENGED POPULATION

Epidemiology of Congenital heart disease

Types of adult patients with CHD

Congenital heart disease in adults – Unoperated survival

Why do we need specialized centers for the care of adults with CHD?

Transfer from pediatric to adult services

Organization of services and care

ADVANCES AND PROSPECTS IN GASTROENTEROLOGY

Introduction

Diagnostic tests in gastroenterology

Upper gastrointestinal diseases

Diseases of the intestines

Diseases of the pancreas

Diseases of the liver

Impact of genomics in gastroenterology and hepatology

OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY

Definition of Obstetrics

History of Obstetrics

Infectious Diseases in the Pregnant Woman

Normal Pregnancy

Pregnancy Complications

Delivery

What is Gynaecology

History of Gynaecology

The Vulva

The Vagina

The Uterus

THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF BILHARZIA-ASSOCIATED BLADDER CANCER

Precursor Lesions

Classification

Early detection and chemoprevention

Biologic features

BILHARZIASIS: A GRANULOMATOUS PARASITIC DISORDER WITH GRAVE IMPLICATIONS

Life cycle of the Bilharzial parasite

Pathogenesis of schistosomiasis

Clinical features of Bilharziasis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

Hepatosplenic Bilharziasis (Bilharzial hepatic portal fibrosis)

Bilharziasis of the urogenital system

Bilharziasis of the lungs

Bilharziasis of Other Organs

Schistosomal Antigens and Immune Complexes

THE PATHOLOGY OF BREAST CANCER

Introduction

Types of breast lumps

Breast carcinoma

Conclusions

THE PAST AND FUTURE IMPACTS OF HEALTH/MEDICAL INFORMATICS ON HEALTHCARE DELIVERY

Introduction

The Use of Computers in Health Care Is Reducing Errors and Improving Patient Safety

The Benefits of a Unified Electronic Health Record

Computer Technology in Primary Care and Chronic Disease Management

Using Communications Technology to Traverse Space at the Speed of Care

Conclusion

HUMAN ASPECTS OF HEALTH CARE INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Introduction

Background

Towards a Framework for Considering HCI in Health Care

Human-Computer Interaction and the System Development Life Cycle

Usability Engineering Methods for the Iterative Evaluation and Improvement of Health Information Systems

Examples of Emerging Technologies in Health Care User-Computer Interfaces

Conclusion - Need for Cognitive Approaches to System Design in Health Care

CLINICAL INFORMATICS

Introduction

Background: The Origins of Clinical Informatics

The Emergence of Healthcare Information Technology and the Electronic Health Record (EHR)

Issues with Electronic Health Record Systems

Emergence of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) and On-line Clinical Guidelines

Monitoring Systems

Clinical Departmental Systems

Hospital-Wide Clinical Information Systems

Discussion

Conclusion

ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE

TISSUE ENGINEERING

Introduction

Clinical Applications

Cell Source: All Cells are not Created Equal

Other Critical Issues

From Benchtop Research to a Product and to the Patient

The Future

BIOMATERIALS

Introduction

Types of Materials

Tissue/Biomaterials Interactions

Uses of Biomaterials

Challenges for Biomaterials

Next Generation Biomaterials

Conclusions

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT

Introduction

Biomedical Signals and Measurement Systems

Physical Measurements

Conclusion

PATHOGENICITY, VIRULENCE AND EMERGING PATHOGENIC STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI TRANSMITTED THROUGH FOOD AND WATER WOOD PHYSICS AND DRYING

Introduction

Taxonomy

Reservoir

Pathogenic E. coli

Concluding Remarks

HOUSE DUST MITES-WHAT MIGHT A MITE DO?

Introduction

Taxonomy and natural history of house dust mites

Morphology of dust mites

Life stages of dust mites

Ecology and habits

Effect on health

The common sites for house dust mites

Exposure to house dust mite allergens

The familiar signs and symptoms of airborne allergies

Diagnosis

Managing dust mite’s allergy

Conclusion

TROPICAL HEALTH: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

Introduction

Medical Conditions in the Tropics

Anaemia in Tropical Areas

Global Warming: The Hidden Health Risk

Low Cost

Conclusion and Hope for the Future

FOOD SAFETY – ITS ROLE IN HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT: THE PROBLEMS RELATED TO OUR FOOD SUPPLY

The problems related to our food supply

CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD SAFETY

Introduction

Consumer Perceptions of Risk

Risk and Benefit

Trust in Food and Actors in the Food Chain

Individual Differences

Conclusion

THE NEED FOR AN INTERNATIONAL APPROACH – THE ROLE OF FAO AND WHO

Introduction

Food Safety Risk Assessment at the International Level

Food Safety Risk Management at the International Level

HOME FOOD SAFETY AND CONSUMER RESPONSIBILITY

Introduction

Incidence and cost of foodborne disease

Foodborne disease incidence associated with the home

Bacterial contamination and the domestic kitchen

The role of the consumer

Consumer food preparation and consumption patterns

Mechanisms for assessing consumer food safety behavior

Consumer knowledge of food safety issues

Consumer attitudes to food safety in the home

Consumer food preparation behavior

Consumer food safety education

Conclusions

MANAGEMENT OF FOOD SAFETY IN THE INDUSTRIAL SETTING

Introduction

Risks and Controls along the Food Supply Chain

Role of Food Technologies in Ensuring Food Safety

Safety and Quality Assurance System

Challenges and Outlook

Conclusions

FOOD SAFETY AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL - THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS

Introduction

Threats to Food Safety

Food Safety – A Shared Responsibility

A Role for Government

Integrated Controls from Farm-to-Fork

Responsibilities for Food Control at Government Level

Food Laws and Regulations

Management of Official Food Controls

Inspection Services

Laboratories, Monitoring and Surveillance

Information, Education and Communication

Conclusion

THE CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE VASCULAR SURGERY

Introduction

Arterial Disease

Venous Diseases

PROGRESS IN PEDIATRIC SURGERY - SELECTED ADVANCES IN LIFE SAVING PROCEDURES IN PEDIATRIC SURGERY

Introduction

Scope of Pediatric Surgery

Progress in Pediatric Surgery as a Result of New Life Saving Procedures and Technologies

Neonatal Surgery

Surgery in Children with Coagulopathy

Coagulation and Liver Diseases

Other Advances in Bleeding Control and Hemostasis in Pediatric Surgery

Modern Liver Support or Substitution Possibilities in Children

Liver Transplantation as a Life Saving Procedure in Children with Liver Failure

Conclusions

ADVANCES AND CURRENT PROGRESS OF LIVER SURGERY

Introduction

Terminology

Liver resection

Operative procedures

Treatment of the most common liver lesions

GASTROINTESTINAL FISTULAE: LETHAL IMPLICATIONS REMAIN

Definition

Historical notes

Classification

Etiology

Evolution of the Management of Fistulae:- The MGH Experience

Management of gastrointestinal fistulae

Summary and Conclusions

FINANCING HEALTH RESEARCH: NEW TRENDS AND MODALITIES

Trends in health research financing

Financing for research on neglected diseases

Public-Private Interactions: new modalities for financing neglected disease research

Scientific production and financing

Challenges for future financing of health research

PHYLOGENETIC TREE OF LIFE

PALEOCLIMATOLOGY AND PALEOECOLOGY

Prelude: Aim and Scope of the Chapter

Concepts and History

Precambrian: Changing Climates of Early Ecosystems

Paleozoic (542-251 Ma)

Mesozoic (252-65 Ma)

Cenozoic

Concluding Remarks

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY

Systematics and Biodiversity

Evolution and Classification

Competing Systematic Philosophies

Cladistics and Classification

Molecular Systematics

Phylogenetic Methods and Software

Codes of Taxonomic Nomenclature

Conclusions

EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: ANCIENT ROOTS AND NEW PERSPECTIVES

Introduction

Fundamental questions in EvoDevo

History of EvoDevo

The Morphological Regularities Of Evolution – A.N. Sewertzoff

The Factors Of Evolution – Ivan I. Schmalhausen

Convergent Evolution Of Ideas – Schmalhausen And Waddington

Embryos, Ancestors And Heterochrony - Sir Gavin. R. Debeer

The Homeobox And The Rebirth Of Evodevo

Important Contepts In Contemporary Evodevo

BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA

Prokaryotes: the unseen majority

The Species Concept for the Prokaryotes

Bacteria And Archaea, The Two Domains of the Prokaryotic World

The Differences Between Bacteria And Archaea

The Prokaryotes A Taxonomic Overview

Prokaryotes: The Uncultured Majority

EMBRYOPHYTA

Short Introduction to Green Plants

Embryophytes - Characteristics and diversity

Bryophytes

Tracheophytes (vascular plants)

Progymnosperm concept: the "emblematic" fossil plant Archaeopteris.

Seed plants

Introduction to the Angiosperms

KINGDOM FUNGI

Introduction

Fungal Biology

Fungal ecology

Fungal taxonomy and systematics

Fungal genomics

Introduction to major fungal groups

Future outlook

AMBULACRARIA

General Introduction

The Echinodermata

Hemichordata

Plactosphaeroidea (Xenoturbella)

CHORDATA

Characteristics and Diversity of Chordates

Origin of Craniates and Jawless Vertebrates

Evolution of Gnathostomes

Actinopterygians

Sarcopterygians

Limbed Vertebrates

Amniotes

SPIRALIA/LOPHOTROCHOZOA

Introduction to Spiralia and Lophotrochozoa

Phylogeny of Spiralia

Gnathifera

Rouphozoa

Lophophorata

Nemertea

Entoprocta & Cycliophora

Mollusca

Annelida

The problematic positions of Dicyemida, Orthonectida & Chaetognatha

Cultural impact and relevance to human welfare

ECDYSOZOA

Introduction to Ecdysozoa

History

Internal Phylogeny of Ecdysozoa

Characteristics and Diversity of Ecdysozoans: Arthropoda

Characteristics and Diversity of Ecdysozoans: Cycloneuralia

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HEXAPODA

Introduction

The Hexapoda: An Ancient Story

The Major Insect Clades

The Hexapoda and the Great Environmental Changes

BASAL METAZOANS

Introduction on "Basal Metazoans"

The Phylogenetic Relationships among Non-Bilaterian Metazoa

Phylum Porifera

Placozoa

Ctenophora (comb-jellies)

Phylum Cnidaria

Cultural Impact, Relevance to Human Welfare, And Sustainable Development

MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OF THE WORLD

PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

Introduction

History

Traditional Uses

Phytochemistry

Medicinal Properties

Conclusion

IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: USES, KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER AND CONSERVATION PRACTICES

Introduction

Methods of Screening Criteria of Important Medicinal Plants

Important medicinal plants from Ethiopia and their uses

IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY

HISTORY OF BIOLOGY

Antiquity

The Medieval and Renaissance Periods

The development of morphology

Palaeontology

Taxonomy and Evolution

Hystology, Reproduction and embryology

Physiology

Genetics

Ecology and Ethology

Pathology

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING BEINGS

Former Conceptions of Life

Current Conceptions About Living Beings

Evolution

LEVELS OF BIOTIC ORGANIZATION

The Development of Organization at the Individual Level

The Development of Organization: Embryology and Cycles

The Paleontological Account

The Intertaxa Organization and Evolution

Symbiosis and Parasitism

POPULATION, SPECIES AND COMMUNITIES

Populations and Species

Species Communities

THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Basic issues in the philosophy of biology: Is biology an experimental or an historical discipline?

Methodological debates

Realism versus nominalism

The population concept: problems and inferences

Bioethics: some sample problems

THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF PRIMITIVE LIFE: ORIGIN AND FORMATION

The role of water

Possible environments for the production of prebiotic organic molecules

Availability of the primitive building blocks

Production of homochiral building blocks

FROM THE BUILDING BLOCKS TO LIFE

A Primitive Cellular Life

Primitive Life Based on RNA: The RNA World

Autocatalysis Preceding RNA

THE EARLIEST ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC LIFE

The first cells

From Heterotrophy to Autotrophy

Ancient oxygen-producing photosynthesis

The first aerobic microorganisms

Origin of organelles of bacterial cells

Origin of the nucleus

Origin and evolution of the mitochondrion

Origin and evolution of plastids

Origin of the cilium

Rise of highly differentiated organisms

HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY

Scientific Historiography and the Analysis of the Theoretical Concepts

The Definition of "Species"

The Problem of Classification

Linneus, the "System" and the "Methods"

Buffon and the nuance of Nature

The Historical Dimension and the Re-orientation of Natural History

Lamarck and Transformism

Paleontology and Geology

THE DARWINIAN VIEW OF LIFE

Evolutionism and Darwinism

What are the Laws of Life?

The Structure of a New Theoretical Picture

The Origin of Species and its Critics

Toward a Natural History of Mind

EVOLUTION AND THE SPECIES CONCEPT

Historical Aspects

Current Paradigms and Challenges

A Case Study

The Future: Towards a Holistic Approach?

SPECIATION AND INTRA-SPECIFIC TAXA

Time frame for speciation

Ecological considerations

Genetic models of speciation

Modes of speciation

Speciation in plants

NATURAL SELECTION AND THE EFFECTS OF ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION ON POPULATIONS

Natural Selection

Non-selective Aspects of Population Biology

Deterministic and Stochastic Concerns in Population Biology

CELL AND TISSUE STRUCTURE IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS

Cell and tissue development

Cell Ultrastructure

Selected Examples of Differentiated Cell Types

General Organisation of Tissues

Some Examples of Specialised Tissue Types

BIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS

Stabilization

Homeostasis

Homeorrhesis, the Control of Behavior

Control of Development and Reproduction

PATTERNS AND RATES OF SPECIES EVOLUTION

Biological and morphological species concepts

Evidence from ecology and palaeobiology

Fossil evidence of speciation.

Species diversification through time

Evolutionary patterns and processes

HISTORICAL REVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE

The Origins

From Classical Antiquity to the Renaissance Encyclopaedias

From the First Monographers to Linnaeus

Concepts and Definitions: Species, Homology, Analogy

The Impact of Evolutionary Theory

The Last Few Decades

Nomenclature

Natural History Collections

METABOLIC DIVERSITY IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES

The Thermodynamic and Mechanistic Basis of Cellular Metabolism

Metabolic Diversity Within the Three Domains of Life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya

Phototrophy - The Use of Light as Energy Source

Heterotrophy

Chemoautotrophy

Metabolic Diversity and the Cycles of Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur and Other Elements

Introduction

DIVERSITY OF FORM, FUNCTION AND ADAPTATION IN MICROORGANISMS

Cell Size and Cell Shape in the Procaryotes

The Outer Layers of the Procaryotic Cell

Special Intracellular Structures

Motility Organelles

Survival and Dispersal Forms

Multicellular Differentiation and Special Life Cycles in Procaryotes

Diversity of Form, Function, and Adaptation - The Lower Eucaryotes and the Procaryotes Compared

Introduction

DIVERSITY OF FORM, FUNCTION AND ADAPTATION IN FUNGI

Diversity of Form

Reproduction

Diversity of Function

Adaptation

Economic Relevance of Fungi

EVOLUTIONARY AND MOLECULAR TAXONOMY

Basic Concepts

Molecular Methods used in Systematics

Phylogenetic Analysis

Future Developments

SYSTEMATICS OF ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA

Systematics, Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Procaryotes - A Few Definitions

Procaryote Systematics - A Historical Overview

The Formal Framework of Description and Nomenclature of Procaryotes

Approaches to the Classification of Procaryotes

Archaea and Bacteria, the two Domains of the Procaryotic World

How Many Procaryote Species are there in Nature?

Introduction

Conclusions

PROTOCTISTA

Classification

Ciliophora

SYSTEMATICS OF FUNGI

Kingdom Fungi

LICHENS

Biology

Lichen compounds

Evolution

Classification

Geographical distribution

Ecology

Declining lichens

Future investigations

ALGAE

Cyanobacteria

Glaucophyta

Rhodophyta

Chlorophyta

Heterokontophyta

Dinophyta

Haptophyta

Cryptophyta

Euglenophyta

Final Remarks

BRYOPHYTE SYSTEMATICS

Morphology

Distinguishing Features Among Groups

Sources of Systematic Data

Phylogenetic Relationships

Classification

Future Research

Introduction

PORIFERA, CNIDARIA, AND CTENOPHORA

Porifera

Cnidaria

Ctenophora

PLATYHELMINTHES, NEMERTEA, AND "ASCHELMINTHES"

General Morphology

Platyhelminthes, the Flatworms

Nemertea (Nemertini), the Ribbon Worms

“Aschelminthes”

ANNELIDA

Basic annelid organization

Annelid anatomy

Annelid diversity

Annelid behavior and physiology

Reproduction and development

Annelid phylogeny

ARTHROPODS OTHER THAN INSECTS

Myriapoda

Crustacea

Cheliceriformes [= Cheliceromorpha]

INSECTS AND OTHER HEXAPODOUS ARTHROPODS

What are Insects?

Why are Insects so Successful?

Insect Life Cycles

Ecological Importance of Insects

Insect Diversity

MOLLUSCA

Relationships and Higher Classification

General Morphology of the Mollusca

Gastropoda

Bivalvia (=Pelecypoda)

Cephalopoda

Other Classes - Living and Extinct

Current Knowledge

Geographic Diversity

Ecological Diversity

Conservation

Economic Importance

ECHINODERMATA

General Morphology of the Echinodermata

Classification and Relationships of the Echinodermata

Edrioasteroid-like Echinoderms

Blastozoans

Crinoidea

Asteroidea

Ophiuroidea

Holothuroidea

Echinoidea

Ongoing and Future Research

OTHER INVERTEBRATE TAXA

Mesozoa

Xenoturbellida (Xenoturbella Bocki)

Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)

Sipunculida

Tardigrada, the Water-bears

Onychophora, the Velvet Worms

Chaetognatha, the Arrow Worms

Tentaculata, or Lophophorata

Hemichordata

TUNICATA AND CEPHALOCHORDATA

Introduction to Protochordata: General Characteristics

Tunicata

Cephalochordata

PISCES

Introduction

The Biology of Fishes

The Emergence of Fishes

AMPHIBIA

Introduction

Classification of Amphibia

Gymnophiona

Caudata

Anura

Metamorphosis

Ecological Role

Declining Amphibians

Skin Secretions

Future Investigations

REPTILES

Introduction

Diversity and Systematics

The Role of Reptiles in Ecosystems

Humans and Reptiles

The Global Conservation Status of Reptiles

BIRDS

Introduction

Basic attributes

Structure and physiology

Yearly cycle

Behavior

Distribution

Evolution and Classification

MAMMALS

Introduction

Mammal characteristics

Mammal evolution

Systematics

Diversity and conservation priorities

Future research

PRIMATE EVOLUTION

Introduction

Archaic Primates

Early Euprimates“Primates of Modern Aspect”

Later Simian Radiations

The Origins of Modern Primate Groups

REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGY

THE SCIENCE OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY

Gametes

Embryos

Third-Party Reproduction

Diverse Topics within ART

THE ETHICS OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY

Gametes

Embryos

Third-Party Reproduction

Diverse Topics within ART

HOMEODYNAMICS

Feedback and Gain

Intracellular Homeodynamics

Homeodynamics of Cell Numbers

Extracellular Fluid Homeodynamics

Environmental Temperature and Homeodynamics

Environmental Chemical Threats and Homeodynamics

Homeodynamics and Disease

Ecosystem Homeodynamics

G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS

Turning the system on

Signaling through several pathways

What do the receptors do?

GPCR families

Receptor regulation

GPCR and human disease

GPCRs as a gold mine for drug development

IONIC CHANNELS OF THE EXCITABLE MEMBRANE

Sodium Channel Protein

Operating of Voltage-Gated Channels

Ligand-Gated Channels

Mechanically Activated Channels

Membrane Receptor-Ionic Channel Coupling

The First -Order Code

MECHANISMS OF CELL VOLUME REGULATION

Factors Determining Cell Volume Under Steady-State Conditions

Physiological and Pathological Causes of Non-Balanced Cell Volume Changes

General Mechanisms of Cell Volume Regulation Under Non-Steady-State Conditions

Physical and Chemical Signals Generated by Cell Volume Alterations: Possible Nature of the Cell Volume Sensor(s)

Transduction of Volume Signal

Contribution of Volume Regulatory Mechanisms to Cell Functions and Pathological States

Perspectives on the Studies of Cell Volume Regulation

THERMOREGULATION

Basic Elements of the Human Thermoregulatory System

Body Heat Balance

Thermoregulatory Reactions to Heat and Cold

Body Heat Loads

Models of the Human Thermoregulatory System

Efficiency of Human Thermoregulation

Gender Differences in Thermoregulation

Acclimation and Acclimatization

Thermoregulation in Children

Other Aspects of Thermoregulation

PAIN AND PROTECTIVE REFLEXES

Physiological and Pathological Pain

Pain Definition

Classification of Pain

Central Pain Pathways

Withdrawal Reflex and Avoidance Behavior Induced by Noxious Stimulation

Regulation of Pain Transmission in the Central Nervous System

Functional and Structural Changes in the Pain Tracts

Responses of Peripheral Nociceptors to Tissue Injury and Inflammation

WOUND HEALING AND REGENERATION

Phased Healing Response

Pathologic Responses to Wounding

Standard and Emerging Therapies for Enhanced Healing

LEARNING AND MEMORY

Learning by Classic Conditioning

Memory

Neural Mechanisms of Memory

Brain Areas Involved in Memory

Amnesia

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY - MOLECULAR IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

Introduction: Principles of PET

Radiochemistry

Drug Development, Radiolabeled Drugs, and PET

Brain Receptors and Neurotransmission

Perfusion Imaging

Metabolic Imaging

Clinical Applications of PET

Imaging Gene Expression in vivo using PET

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY

Introduction: Diversity of Animals

Size, Scaling and Allometry

Physiological Adaptation and Phenotypic Plasticity

Adaptation and Phylogeny

Major Evolutionary Steps in Vertebrate Physiological Adaptation

CONCEPT OF ENZYME CATALYSIS

Background

Enzyme Specificity

General Features to Increase the Reaction Rate

Basic Catalytic Mechanisms

Stabilization of the Transition State

Transition State Analogs

Enzymic and Metabolic Equilibria

ON THE DETERMINATION OF ENZYME STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND MECHANISM

Structure Determination Techniques

Relationship of Enzyme Structure with Enzyme Chemistry and Mechanism

Future Considerations

Introduction

ENZYMES OF DIGESTION

Hydrolysis

Enzymes of Digestion According to Their Sites of Secretion

METABOLISM OF OXYGEN

Oxygen chemistry

Mitochondria and oxygen

Oxygen activation by cytochrome P450

Peroxisomes

Vascular endothelium and xanthine oxidase

Reactive metabolites as bullets of phagocytes

Oxygen damages of biomolecules

Sensing oxygen levels

Oxygen in genome regulation

PROTECTION AGAINST OXIDATIVE STRESS

Introduction and General Considerations

Reactive Oxygen Species and Their Formation

Oxidative Damage and Physiological Significance of Reactive Oxygen Species

Oxidative Stress in Disease

Antioxidant Defence Mechanisms

Antioxidant Supplementation and Oxidative Stress

Exercise as a Protective Tool Against Oxidative Stress

PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF GENE ACTIVITY BY OXYGEN(O2)

HIF: transcriptional regulator of hypoxic responses

Oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and cellular responses

Oxygen and disease progression

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF XENOBIOTICS AND HORMONES

Absorption of Xenobiotics

Detoxication and Bioactivation

Excretion of Metabolites

BIOMONITORING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Introduction and Background

Biomarker Molecules

Models Used in Biomonitoring

Biomonitoring of the Quality of Air

Soil Pollution

Pollution and Biomonitoring of Water Resources

Biomonitoring of Textile Safety

Human and Animal Diseases in the Biomonitoring of Environmental Pollution

Attempts at Pollutant Bioidentification

Chemical Analysis of Pollutants and Biomonitoring

INDUSTRIAL USE OF ENZYMES

Historical Background

Enzyme Classification

Enzyme Production

Protein Engineering

Enzyme Technology

Large-Scale Enzyme Applications

Specialty Enzymes

Enzymes in Fine Chemical Production

Future Trends in Industrial Enzymology

NUTRITION AND DIGESTION

Nutrition

Digestion

AUTOTROPHIC, HETEROTROPHIC AND OTHER NUTRITIONAL PATTERNS

Introduction: Different Life Forms

Origin of Life and Energy Sources

Early Chemotrophic Life

Early Phototrophic Autotrophism

First Steps towards Karyotes: From Heterotrophism to Nucleus and Mitosis

From Endosymbiosis to Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Towards Multicellularism and Task Divisions within Organisms

Organisms in Ecosystems?Symbiosis

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS

Nutritional Needs and Dietary Recommendations

Nutritional Needs

Non-Nutrient Dietary Substances

ALIMENTARY SYSTEMS IN SOME HOMEOTHERMIC VERTEBRATES

General Structure of the Digestive Tract

Carnivores

Herbivores

Birds

INTESTINAL MICROFLORA

Introduction - Composition of the Intestinal Flora

Microbial Ecology of the Intestinal Flora

Effects of the Intestinal Flora

Bacterial Enzymes

Intestinal Flora and Immune Defense

Methods to Studying the Intestinal Flora

Future Aspects

FATTY ACIDS IN HUMAN METABOLISM

Physico-Chemical Properties of Fatty Acids

Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

Classification and Biological Function of Fatty Acids

Fatty Acids as Constitutional Components of Lipids

Physiological Roles of Fatty Acids

Milk Lipids and Developing Brain

Pathophysiology of Fatty Acids

Therapeutic Use of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

VEGETARIANISM AND VEGAN DIET

Food Safety and Various Eating Patterns

Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Physiological Health Promotion

Plant-Only Diets and Health Risk Control

Dietary Guidelines for Vegetarians

Divergence in Values About Eating

STEROLS, ESPECIALLY CHOLESTEROL AND PHYTOSTEROLS, IN HUMAN METABOLISM

Nutrition and Digestion of Sterols

Sterols in the Human Body

Clinical and Pathobiochemical Significance of Sterols

Sterol Analysis

RENAL GENERAL FUNCTIONS

Renal General Functions

Body Fluid Compartments

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA) Releases Renin

Glomerular Ultrafiltration (GFR) and Its Determination

Composition of the Glomerular Filtrate

Tubular Filtrate Processing

WATER AND ION BALANCE AND IMBALANCE

Water Balance

Water Deprivation

Minimum Daily Water Intake

Antidiuretic Hormone

Synthesis and Mechanism of Action of ADH

Ion Imbalances

EXCRETION OF WASTES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Excretion of Creatinine

Excretion of Urea

Renal Failure

COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF RENAL EXCRETION IN VERTEBRATES

Fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

GENERAL FEATURES OF HORMONAL COORDINATION

Introduction

Chemical nature of hormones

Hormone transport in blood

Hormones as universal and specific regulators

Hormone receptors

Feedback systems

Decay of hormones

Endocrine disruptors

Evolution of hormones

GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND BRAIN

Action Mechanisms of Glucocorticoids

Corticosteroid Receptors

Neural and Neuroendocrine Control of Glucocorticoid Secretion

Glucocorticoids as a Biological Substrate of Reward

Role of Glucocorticoids in Affective Illness

Neurotoxicity of Glucocorticoids

MELATONIN - THE HORMONE OF DARKNESS

Melatonin as Pineal Hormone of Darkness

Melatonin in Other Tissues

Circadian Secretion Pattern of Melatonin

Seasonal Secretion of Melatonin

Metabolism of Melatonin

Melatonin Receptors

Biological Action Profile of Melatonin

Future Perspectives

HEART AS AN ENDOCRINE ORGAN

Adaptation of the Heart to Increased Load

Discovery of Cardiac Hormones

Physiological Effects of Cardiac Natriuretic Peptides (ANP and BNP)

Natriuretic Peptide Receptors

Regulation of ANP and BNP

Therapeutic Use of Cardiac Hormones

Diagnostic Use of Cardiac Hormones

HORMONES AND COLD: INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR

Introduction

Why did a Tropical Man Move to Cold Climate Areas?

Does Modern Man Experience Cold?

Physiological Heat Production

Thyroid Hormones in Cold

Catecholamines and Brown Adipose Tissue

Frost Bites

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND GAS EXCHANGE

Lung Structure and Volumes

Terminal Respiratory Unit

Pulmonary and Alveolar Ventilation

Gas Exchange

Distribution of Ventilation and Perfusion

Mismatch of Ventilation and Perfusion

Smoking and Respiration

Introduction

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF RESPIRATION

Dynamics of Respiration

Control of Respiration

Introduction

OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT

Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve

Oxygen Delivery

Carbon Dioxide Transport

Introduction

ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY AND TISSUE NEEDS

Elementary Hemodynamics and Wall Mechanics

Biological Design of Arteries

Cytophysiology of Artery Wall Components

Pressure in Arteries

Blood Flow in Arteries

Different Segments of the Arterial Tree

Control of Arterial Contractility

Organ Blood Flows and Needs

Blood Pressure Control

Pathophysiology of Arteries

VENOUS SYSTEM

Survey of Physiological Functions of the Venous System

Central Venous Pressure

Aspects of Maintaining Healthy Venous Functions

MICROCIRCULATION

Classification and Structure of Microvessels

Control of Microcirculation

Transmicrovascular Exchange

Microcirculation and Pathology

HEMORHEOLOGY AND HEMODYNAMICS

Rheology of Blood

Clinical Aspects of Blood Rheology

Role of Hemorheology in Hemodynamics

MUSCLE ENERGY METABOLISM

Introduction and General Considerations

Phosphate Bond Energy

Anaerobic Energy Metabolism

Mitochondria and Aerobic Metabolism

Metabolism of Glucose and Glycogen in Muscle Fibers

Fatty Acids and Triglycerides as an Energy Source

Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type and Aerobic and Glycolytic Capacity

Muscular Fatigue and Mitochondrial Respiration

Aerobic and Anaerobic Thresholds

Metabolic Profiles of Cardiac Muscle in Action

Metabolism in Smooth Muscle

EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

Introduction

Voltage sensor of ECC

Calcium release channel of the SR

Control of sarcoplasmic calcium release

Altered ECC in disease

SENSORY-MOTOR POSTURE CONTROL IN LUMBAR DISORDERS

Motor Control

Postural Control

Motor Control of the Lumbar Spine

Lumbar Disorders

Pain and Motor Control

Future Perspectives

PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF EXERCISE

Skeletal Muscle

Cardiovascular Adaptation due to Exercise

Respiratory Regulation During Exercise

Fatigue

LUMBAR MUSCLE FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION IN LOW BACK PAIN

Anatomy and Function of the Trunk Extensor and Flexor Muscles

Epidemiological Aspects of LBP

Structural and Pathophysiological Aspects in LBP

Lumbar Muscle Dysfunction in LBP

GAIT, LIMBS AND LIMPING

Introduction

Bipedal being

Balance

Limping

Overweight and osteoarthritis

Joint pains

Exercise, prevention of limping and maintaining motility

Conclusions

FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LOCOMOTION AND POSTURE

Introduction: the Common Mammalian Heritage

Subsystems of Human Locomotor Apparatus and Mechanical Constraints of their Phylogeny

Mechanisms to Drive the Mechanics

Sensory Input

Muscular Recruitment During Locomotion

Locomotion and Postural Motor Control

Postural Motor Control and Sitting

SEDENTARY LIFE - SOURCE OF MULTIPLE HEALTH PROBLEMS

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Sitting

Dynamism to Sitting

Mental Strain and Sitting

Sitting at Schools

Deterioration of Muscle Fitness and Everyday Life

Osteoporosis

Metabolic Problems in Sedentary Life

NEUROMUSCULAR ACTIVITIES IN EXTREME TEMPERATURES

Thermoregulatory Activity of the Motor System

Muscular Performance in Cold and Hot Conditions

Manual Performance in Cold

Skilled Motor Performance in Extreme Temperatures

STRUCTURAL NEUROBIOLOGY

Neural Plasma Membranes and Membrane Proteins

Neural Lipids

Myelin

Cell Adhesion Molecules

Cytoskeleton

AUTONOMOUS NEURAL REGULATION

Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

Autonomic neurotransmitters

Autonomic nervous functions

Changes in autonomous regulation

Introduction

NEURONS, ACTION POTENTIALS AND SYNAPSES

Resting Membrane Potential

Action Potential

Synapses

Neurotransmitter Actions

Neuromuscular Junctions

Synaptic Receptors

Intracellular Messengers

NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND MODULATORS

Introduction

Acetylcholine

Synthesis and Breakdown of Amine Transmitters

Dopamine

5-Hydroxytryptamine

Histamine

Purine Transmitters

Synthesis, Breakdown and Transport of Amino Acid Transmitters

Glutamate

g -Aminobutyrate (GABA)

Glycine

Peptide Transmitters and Modulators

Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide

PHANTOM PAIN

The possible explanation of mechanisms of phantom pain.

The treatment of the phantom pain.

BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS

Circadian Rhythms are Endogenous

Entrainment

Rhythms in Plants

Rhythms in Animals

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

Projections from the SCN

Rhythms outside the SCN

Clock Genes

Measurement of the Circadian Rhythms

Melatonin

Human Performance and Circadian Rhythm

Jet Lag

Shift Work

Seasonal Depression

SLEEP

Definition of Sleep

Amount and Timing of Sleep

Sleep Stages and the Structure of Nocturnal Sleep

Regulation of Sleep

Disorders of Sleep

Brain and Sleep

Why We Sleep

REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE

Sensory Signals and Food Intake

Gastrointestinal Neural Signals and Food Intake

Gastrointestinal Hormones and Food Intake

Nutrient Blood Levels in Regulation

Sympathetic Nervous System and Obesity

Adipose Tissue Feedback in Regulation

Food Intake and Centers in the Brain

Psyche and Nutrition

Regulation of Drinking

Social Eating and Drinking

Culture and Selecting Foods

Physical Activity and Food Intake

Eating and Drinking Disorders

STRESS AND COPING

General adaptation syndrome

Anatomy of stress and physiological mechanisms

Differences in stress response

Stress and diseases

Coping and defense

THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PLEASURE

Needs for Pleasure

Reward Deficiency Syndrome

Love

WATER RELATIONS IN PLANTS

Importance of Water to All Living Beings

Water Potential: What Does it Contain?

Absorption of Soil Water by Plant Roots (and Other Parts)

What Else is There in Soil Moisture?

Soil Conditions Affect Plants Greatly

Root Nodules and Mycorrhizae Affect Nutrient and Water Uptake by Roots

Root Pressure and Guttation

Structure of the Water-Conducting Systems in Plants: Xylem and Phloem Sap

Water Transport Inside the Plant

Stomatal Regulation of Water Evaporation

Adaptation to Drought

Transport of Water and Organic Compounds in the Phloem

THE FUNCTIONS OF CHLOROPHYLLS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Structures, Properties, and Natural Occurrence of Chlorophylls

Chlorophylls as Redox Pigments in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

Functions of Chlorophylls in the Light-Harvesting Antenna Systems

Opportunities Offered by Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis Research

BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH EMPHASIS ON LEGUMES

Nitrogen-Fixing Organisms

Importance of Nitrogen Fixation

The Rhizobium–Legume Symbiosis

Evolution and Ecology

Applications

Future Prospects

ROLES OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATING SUBSTANCES

Indole-3-Acetic Acid

Gibberellins

Abscisic Acid

Cytokinins

Ethylene

BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG PLANTS: ALLELOPATHY AS ECOSYSTEM REGULATOR

Allelopathic Interactions in Plant Communities of Natural Ecosystems

Allelopathy in Aquatic Ecosystem

Allelopathic Interactions in Agroecosystems

Allelopathy in Sustainable Agriculture

Allelopathy in Relation to Environmental Complexity

Future Allelopathic Research

PHENOLOGY OF TREES AND OTHER PLANTS IN BOREAL ZONE UNDER CLIMATIC WARMING

Climatic Adaptation of Plants in Boreal Zone

Trees and Shrubs

Herbs and Grasses

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND FUNCTION OF PLANT LEAVES

Ozone as Environmental Pollutant

Plant Responses to Ozone

Combined Action of Air Pollutants and Other Environmental and Climatic Factors in Plants

PLANT-INSECT INTERACTIONS AND POLLUTION

Ecosystem and Host Plant Level Disturbances in Polluted Areas

Responses of Various Plant Feeder Groups to Environmental Changes

Effects of the Most Important Air Pollutants on Plant-Feeding Insects

Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant-Feeding Insects

Consequences of Rising Temperature for Insect-Plant Interactions

Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Plant-Feeding Insects

Plant Pathogens and Nematodes in Relation to Air Pollution

Relative Importance of Pollutants and Global Change Factors on Herbivorous Insect Populations

PHYLOGENY OF EXTREMOPHILES

The Structure of the Tree of Life

Was the LCA a Hyperthermophile?

Was the LCA a Prokaryote?

The Origin of Prokaryotes and of Hyperthermophily

Thermophilic Prokaryotes

Piezophilic Prokaryotes

Psychrophilic Prokaryotes

Extreme Halophiles

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES AND MEMBRANE PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

Composition of the Membrane

Bioenergetics

Bioenergetic Problems of Extremophiles

Transport of Solutes in Extremophiles

HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

Biotopes of Hyperthermophiles

Phylogeny of Hyperthermophiles

Taxonomy of Hyperthermophiles

Sampling and Isolation of Hyperthermophiles

Strategies of Life and Environmental Adaptations of Hyperthermophiles

Distribution of Species and Complexity in Hyperthermophilic Ecosystems

Basis of Heat Stability and the Upper Temperature Limit for Life

STRATEGIES OF HYPERTHERMOPHILES IN NUCLEIC ACIDS ADAPTATION TO HIGH TEMPERATURE

The General Problem of Nucleic Acid Stability at High Temperature

Thermoprotection of RNA in Hyperthermophiles

Thermoprotection of DNA in Hyperthermophiles

THERMOSTABILITY AND THERMOACTIVITY OF EXTREMOZYMES

Enzyme Stability

The Structural Basis of Thermostability

Observations from Nature

Lessons From Directed Evolution

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Factors in Enzyme Thermostability

Thermoactivity

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF THE HYPERTHERMOPHILE PROTEOME

Systematics of the Order Thermococcales

Characterized Enzymes and Proteins

Starch Catabolism

Functional and Structural Genomics

COMPATIBLE SOLUTES IN MICROORGANISMS THAT GROW AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

Strategies for Osmotic Adaptation in Microorganisms

Compatible Solutes of Organisms that Live at High Temperatures

The Distribution of Compatible Solutes Within the Tree of Life

Reflections on the Physiological Role of Compatible Solutes in Thermoadaptation

The Effect of Hypersolutes on Protein Stability

Pathways for the Synthesis of Compatible Solutes in Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles

HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE IN THERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

Even Extreme Thermophiles Display Heat-Shock Response

Archaeal Chaperonins

Archaeal Chaperonins Are Biotechnological Tools

Perspectives

THERMOACTIVE ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

Extreme Environments as a Source of Novel Thermoactive Enzymes

Cultivation of Extremophilic Microorganisms

Screening Strategies for Thermoactive Enzymes

Starch-Processing Enzymes

Cellulases

Thermoactive Xylanases

Pectin-Degrading Enzymes

Chitinases

Proteolytic Enzymes

Glucose Isomerases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases, and Esterases

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

ICE ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY

Known and unknown ice ecosystems

Open questions

MEMBRANE ADAPTATION AND SOLUTE UPTAKE SYSTEMS

Membrane Structure and Lipid Organization

Structure of Transport Proteins

Lipid Adaptation to the Cold

Transport of Small Molecules

Effects of Lipid Composition on Transport

Solute Uptake and Ecology in the Cold

CATALYSIS AND LOW TEMPERATURE: MOLECULAR ADAPTATIONS

The Psychrophilic Context

Kinetic Optimization of Cold-Active Enzymes

Stability of Psychrophilic Enzymes

Activity-Flexibility-Stability Relationships

COLD-SHOCK RESPONSE IN MICROORGANISMS

Membranes

Transport Systems

Metabolic Processes

Antifreeze Compounds and Intracellular Effectors

Nucleic Acids and Nucleic Acid-Binding Proteins

Protein Synthesis

Cold-Sensing Mechanisms

Cold Shock and Other Stress Responses

HETEROLOGOUS GENE EXPRESSION IN COLD-ADAPTED MICRO-ORGANISMS

Heterologous Protein Production in Bacteria other than Escherichia coli

Cold-Adapted Bacteria Transformation

Construction of Cold Genetic Systems and their Cold Host Profile

The a -Amylase Example of Heterologous Protein Production in Cold-Adapted Bacteria

COLD-ACTIVE ENZYMES AS NEW TOOLS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Advantages of Cold-Active Enzymes in Biotechnology

Improvement of Enzyme Yield and Thermostability

Biotechnological Potential of Cold-Active Enzymes

FREEZE TOLERANCE

Strategies for Survival at Subzero Temperatures

Freeze Tolerance

FREEZING AVOIDANCE IN POLAR FISHES

Diversity of Fish Antifreeze Proteins

Antifreeze Property and Function

Evolutionary Origins and Pathways of Antifreeze Proteins

Environmental Driving Force for Antifreeze Evolution

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR BIODIVERSITY

Thalassohaline Environments

Athalassohaline Environments

Biodiversity

Future Trends

OSMOREGULATION IN HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

Mechanisms of Osmoadaptation in Prokaryotes

Primary Response of the Halophilic Cell to Fluctuation in External Salinity

MOLECULAR ADAPTATION OF HALOPHILIC PROTEINS

Three-dimensional structures of soluble halophilic proteins

Site directed mutagenesis

Halophilic enzyme activity

Halophilic protein solubility

Halophilic protein stability

Solvent interactions for halophilic proteins

ECTOINES: A NEW TYPE OF COMPATIBLE SOLUTES WITH GREAT COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL

Ectoine - a compatible solute in halophilic microorganisms

Industrial production of ectoines

Effects of ectoines in stabilization

Ectoine - a new cosmetic ingredient

Stabilization of pharmaceuticals

ALKALINE ENVIRONMENTS AND BIODIVERSITY

Genesis of Soda Lakes.

Microbial Diversity

ADAPTATION PROCESSES IN ALKALIPHILES WHEN CELL WALL ACIDITY IS ELEVATED

Growth pH Ranges of Alkaliphilic Microorganisms

Cell Surface Structure of Alkaliphilic Strains of Bacillus spp.

Alkaline pH Sensitivity of Cell Wall-Defective Mutants of Strain C-125

Intracellular pH Homeostasis of Strain C-125 and its Cell Wall-Defective Mutants in Alkaline Environments

ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY OF EXTREMELY ACIDOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

Definition of Extreme Acidophily

Low pH environments

Carbon and Energy Sources of Extreme Acidophiles

Biodiversity of Extremely Acidophilic Bacteria

Acidophilic Archaea

Eukaryotic Acidophiles

Relationships Between Acidophilic Microorganisms

ION TRANSPORT IN ACIDOPHILES

Acid Resistance Mechanisms in Neutrophiles

Mechanism of Growth Under Extreme Acid Conditions

Acid Resistance of H. pylori

EFFLUX SYSTEMS IN METALLOPHILES

Metal Efflux Systems in Bacteria

Soft Metal Translocating P-type ATPases

CDF proteins

RND Type Efflux Complexes

MFS Transporters

Selfish Operons

PIEZOPHILY: PROKARYOTES EXPOSED TO ELEVATED HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Deep-Sea Microbiology

Other Natural Environments Exposed to Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure

Other Worlds

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP-SEA ENVIRONMENTS AND BIODIVERSITY OF PIEZOPHILIC ORGANISMS

Investigation of Life in a High-Pressure Environment

JAMSTEC Exploration of the Deep-Sea High-Pressure Environment

Taxonomic Identification of Piezophilic Bacteria

Biodiversity of Piezophiles in the Ocean Environment

Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation to the High-Pressure Environment

PRESSURE EFFECTS ON BIOMOLECULES

Pressure effects compared with temperature effects

Role of water and solvent composition

Modeling the pressure-temperature behavior of biomolecules

Lipids and biomembranes

Nucleic acids

Polysaccharides

Proteins

From molecules to cells.

PIEZOPHILES: MICROBIAL ADAPTATION TO THE DEEP-SEA ENVIRONMENT

Deep-Sea Habitats

Isolation and Characterization of Piezophiles

High-Pressure Adaptation Mechanisms

Future Prospects

ENZYMES FROM DEEP-SEA MICROORGANISMS

Collection of Deep-sea Mud

Isolation of Microorganisms from Deep-sea Mud

16S rDNA Sequences of Deep-sea Isolates

Exploring Unique Enzyme Producers Among Deep-sea Isolates

DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND THEIR INTERACTIONS

The major determinants of health

Indicators

Data for indicators

Interactions

DETERMINANTS ON HEALTH AND THEIR INTERACTIONS GENETIC FACTORS

Genetics and the Gene

Genetic Diseases

Diagnosis and Treatment

Genetic Engineering

Future, Ethics and Policy Issues

BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND HEALTH

Evolutionary Adaptations

Patterns of Migration

Domestication of Livestock and Human Cohabitation

Ecological Modifications and Biodiversity

Final Considerations

ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

Domestic Environment

Local Environment

Global Factors

AN ECONOMIC VIEW UPON THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

General Health Determinants

Health Interventions

Outlook

HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS

What is a Health Information System?

Health Information Systems and Health Development

The Structure of Health Information Systems

Towards Action-Led Health Information Systems

Educational Requirements

HEALTH-RELATED INDICATORS

A Reference Framework to Health-Related Indicators

From Conceptual Framework to Indicators -- Health State Expectancies

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SURVEILLANCE

Evolution of Surveillance

Definition, Purpose, and Objective of Surveillance

Elements of Surveillance

Organization and Functions of Surveillance Systems

Surveillance and Research

Emerging Disease Threats and International Surveillance

FAMILY HEALTH

Family, Families

Family as a Life-Support System

Family as a Health-Support System

Family Health, Family Care

MENTAL HEALTH

The Social and Economic Cost of Mental Illness

Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders

The Symptoms and Sequelae of Mental Illness

Epidemiology of Mental Disorders

The Multifactorial Causation of Mental Disorders

Common Psychosocial Risk Factors

Treatment and Prevention of Mental Disorders

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Infectious Diseases Causing High Mortality

Infectious Diseases Causing Disability

Emerging and Reemerging Infections

Causes of the Renewed Spread of Infectious Diseases

Limiting the Spread and Consequences of Infectious Diseases

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases and World Health

Economic and Social Implications of the Emerging Epidemics of Noncommunicable Diseases

General Principles and Main Components of the Control of Noncommunicable Diseases

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE: THE KEY TO HEALTH FOR ALL

Background: Emergence of a Right to Health

Experience: Emergence of a Set of Principles

Authorship and Choice of a Name

A Short, Formal Definition of PHC

Attributes and Content of PHC

Community Determination of Basic Needs Related to Health

Determination of Health Targets for HFA/PHC

Practical Implementation of PHC

Who Pays for What, and Who Benefits?

Health for All and PHC after the Year 2000

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Terminology

Background

Quality Assurance in Developing Countries

Scope of Quality Assurance

Health Care Quality Parameters

Standards

Consumer Movements

Patient Satisfaction as an Indicator of Quality

Approaches to Quality Assurance

Utilization of Health Services

Research on Quality Assurance

Information

Organized Quality Assurance Systems: Managed Care

Contention

Competition

PREVENTIVE, THERAPEUTIC AND DIAGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGIES. DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES

Preventive Medicine

Therapeutics

Surgical Cure

Diagnostic Technologies

Perspectives

HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: SUSTAINING EQUITY IN HEALTH CARE

The Development of Health Technology Assessment

Establishing Effectiveness Evidence

The Appropriate Role for Health Technology Assessment

Current Developments: Strategic HTA

HTA in Decision-making: An illustrated model

Looking Ahead

HEALTH TELEMATICS AND ITS SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS

Background

Health Telematics Applications

Societal Implications of Health Telematics

DOMICILIARY, PALLIATIVE, AND TERMINAL CARE

Palliative Care . . . When to Begin?

Symptom Control

Spiritual Suffering

Ethical Issues

BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology will Play a Bigger Role in our Lives

Agricultural Biotechnology

The Human Genome Project

Cloning

Xenotransplantation

Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Developing Countries, Bioethics and Biotechnology

A Vision for the Future

CODES OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL GUIDELINES

Codification and Professionalism

Codes, Guidelines and Pre-Existing Practice

Medical and Related Codes of Conduct

The Scope of Codes and Guidelines

Law and Legal Enforcement

Ethical Interpretation and Application

INFORMED CONSENT IN CLINICAL PRACTICE AND BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

History

Essential Information for Patients and Research Subjects

Exceptions to Consent

Patient Competence to Consent

Informed Consent in the Clinical Setting

Informed Consent in Biomedical Research involving Human Subjects

Obtaining Informed Consent of Subjects

Research Involving Children and Other Incompetent Subjects

Consent to Epidemiological and Other Studies with Community Involvement

Consent in Externally Sponsored Research

Factors Which Nullify Informed Consent

Future of Informed Consent

HEALTH ETHICS, EQUITY AND HUMAN DIGNITY

Definitions and Concept

Ethics and Major Determinants of Health

Future Oriented Approach

GLOBAL AGING

The Elderly

Aging Societies

Implications for Health

The Adaptation of Society

URBAN GROWTH AND HEALTH

Urban Development

Health Implications of Urban Growth

Future Challenges

IMPLICATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC AND CLIMATIC CHANGE FOR HUMAN HEALTH

The Context of Atmospheric and Climate Change

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Biological and Human Health Impact of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation Flux

Greenhouse Gases and Global Climate Change

Effects of Climate Change on Health

Public Health Action

HEALTH IN BORDER AREAS

Definitions

Current and Continuing Concerns of Health and Development in Border Areas

International Recognition of Health in Border Areas

Potential Promotion and Development

DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS

Disaster Medicine

Disaster Epidemiology

Action against Disasters

Emergency Medical Supplies

Disaster Terminology

Conflicts

Humanitarian Medicine

VACCINATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Challenges to Improving Vaccination

Obstacles to Effective Vaccination

Solutions to Problems of Access and Coverage

Mechanisms: Cooperation Between Industrialized Nations and Developing Nations

Recent Initiatives—A Brighter Future?

Role of the World Health Organization

The Future

WATER AND HEALTH

CLASSIFICATION OF WATER-RELATED DISEASE

Definitions and systems for classifying water related disease

Water-related infection

Non-infectious disease related to water

Implications for water related surveillance

Water Associated Disease

BURDEN OF DISEASE: CURRENT SITUATION AND TRENDS

Water-related health outcomes

Trends in risk factors

Trends in health outcomes

Burden of disease

Regional Patterns

Discussion

TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION OF WATER-RELATED DISEASES

Water-borne Diseases

Water-washed Diseases

Water-based Diseases

Water-related Insect Vector Diseases

GOALS OF WATER TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION: REDUCTION IN MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY

Piped water networks and waterborne disease

The diseases

Water treatment: control of pathogens

DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES THAT MEET TREATMENT AND INDICATOR SPECIFICATIONS

Indicators of water quality and public health

Public health surveillance of waterborne disease

Epidemiologic studies of endemic waterborne disease

Etiology and causes of endemic water-attributable disease

Quantitative microbial risk assessment

Costs of undetected waterborne diseases

NEW AND EMERGING WATERBORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Infectious diseases

New, emerging, re-emerging and resurgent infectious diseases

Waterborne infectious diseases

Viral agents

Bacterial agents

Protozoal agents

SAFE DRINKING WATER IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY: PRIORITIES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH

Risk Assessment

The Pathogens

The Phenomenon of "New Disease"

Biofilms

Chemicals

Gene Arrays

Priorities in Public Health - Conclusion

Introduction

RURAL AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

HEALTH IMPACT AND ECONOMIC COSTS OF POOR WATER AND SANITATION

Health impact

Economic costs of poor water and sanitation

Discussion

WATER SAFETY PLANS FOR WATER TECHNOLOGIES

Introduction

Application of Water Safety Plans

System description

Hazard Assessment

Greywater reuse hazard assessment

Matrix Development

Monitoring and Maintenance

HYGIENE PROMOTION

Overview of hygiene promotion

Situation analysis

Planning and implementation of hygiene promotion

Monitoring and evaluation of hygiene promotion

INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES

Introduction

Key Elements for Sustainable Water Services

Barriers to Sustainable Water Services

The Futile Public Private Argument

Some Developing Issues

ECONOMICS AND FINANCING IN THE WATER SECTOR

Water Pricing

Impacts by water scarcity and externalities costs

Key factors to speed the water business change

A growing industry needs comparing with peers

Water services financing and management: new roles for the public and private sectors

DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

MONITORING DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

Introduction

Scientific Basis

Principles and Approaches

Legislative and Regulatory Aspects and Implementation

Conclusions

ZOONOSES ACQUIRED THROUGH DRINKING WATER

General issues of zoonotic disease acquired through drinking water

Zoonotic Protozoa

Zoonotic bacteria

Zoonotic Helminths

Potential waterborne zoonoses

MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT (CATCHMENT TO TAP)

Introduction

Microbiological Water Quality Indicators

Methods of Assessment

Water Quality Management

Future Trends and Perspectives

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

Epidemiologic Study Designs

Uncertainty of Risk Estimates

Cancer Risks

Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes

Cardiovascular Risks

Other Adverse Health Effects

Evaluating the Causality of Reported Associations

Discussion

HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

Introduction

Naturally occurring chemical contaminants

Contaminants arising from agriculture

Contaminants from industry and human habitation

Contaminants introduced in drinking water treatment

Materials used in contact with drinking water

Water Safety Plans

New sources of drinking water

Conclusions

UNCONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY

Water Reclamation

Desalination of Seawater

POINT-OF-USE WATER TREATMENT FOR HOME AND TRAVEL

Potential Solutions for Small Communities

Point-of-Use and Personal Water Treatment

Water Treatment Technologies for Home Applications

Introduction

Conclusions

BOTTLED DRINKING WATER

Regulatory framework

History

Impact

Trends in the Bottled Water Market

Marketing Strategies and Public Perception

The Politics of bottled water

TREATMENT AND SAFE STORAGE OF WATER IN HOUSEHOLDS WITHOUT PIPED SUPPLIES OF TREATED WATER

Introduction

Boiling

Chlorination

Solar Disinfection

Ceramic Filtration

Biosand (Intermittent Sand) Filters

Flocculation-Disinfection

Safe Storage

Cost and affordability

Acceptability, Affordability and Sustainability

WATER RESOURCES

QUANTIFYING HEALTH RISKS IN WASTEWATER IRRIGATION

Introduction

Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis

Post-treatment Health-protection Control Measures

Helminth Eggs

Wastewater Treatment

IMPACTS OF EUTROPHICATION ON THE SAFETY OF DRINKING- AND RECREATIONAL WATER

What is eutrophication?

Effects of eutrophication

Cyanobacteria

Health implications of eutrophication from consumption and recreational exposure

Guideline values, policy and legislation

The Future

Conclusion

Introduction

GROUNDWATER AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Subsurface Behavior of Viruses

Factors Affecting Attachment of Viruses to Soil

Factors Affecting Virus Inactivation in the Subsurface

Advection and Dispersion of Viruses

Model Viruses

Virus Removal by Soil Passage

Removal of Bacteria and Protozoa by Soil Passage

Conclusions

Introduction

Recommendations and Future Developments

AQUACULTURE AND MARICULTURE

Introductory statement

Nature of the industry

Sources of fecal contamination impacting water quality

Pathogens contaminating molluscan shellfish and growing waters

Toxins and chemicals

Control strategies for bivalve molluscs

Future prospects

RECREATION IN NATURAL WATER RESOURCES

Introduction

Recreational Waters

Risks while Recreating

Guidelines and Standards for Monitoring

Pollution

Sources of Fecal Pollution

Reservoirs of Fecal Pollution and Toxins

Impacts and Events

Protection of Recreational Water Sites

Recreating Safely

DRY SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES - CAN THEY BE SUSTAINABLE?

Introduction

Challenges posed in the up-scaling of onsite dry sanitation systems

What happens in the pit?

Implications of research findings on long term sustainability of VIPs

A concerning social phenomenon related to dry sanitation

Conclusions

CONSTRAINTS TO IMPROVING WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES

Current status of water supply and sanitation coverage in the world

Main constraints and their consequences

Towards the 21st Century

TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA

What are cyanobacteria

Causes of bloom

Toxins

Human health effects from cyanobacteria

Environmental effects of toxic cyanobacteria

Controls

The future

MULTIPLE USES OF WATER AND HUMAN HEALTH

Water for People, Food, and the Environment: a Common Resource

Human Health: a Cross Cutting Issue in Water Resources Development

Limitations to Conventional Approaches in the Domestic Water Supply Sector

Domestic Use of Irrigation Water

Newly Emerging Water Quality Problems

Saline Groundwater

Impact of Irrigation Management on Availability of Water for Domestic Use.

Urban Water Supply and Agriculture

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Introduction

Definitions of Health and Health Impact Assessment

The Health Impact Assessment Process

HIA Examples

Discussion and Conclusions

ROLE OF WATER REUSE IN MANAGEMENT OF URBAN WATER RESOURCES

Introduction

Uses for recycled water in the Urban Environment

Production of Recycled water

The Market

The pricing structure

An appropriate regulatory environment

User and community acceptance

Conclusion

THE USES OF RECYCLED WATER

Introduction

Reuse for Agriculture

Amenity Uses

Domestic Non Human Consumption Urban Use

Indirect Potable (Drinking Water) Use

Industrial Use

Environmental Use

The viability of recycled water use - Economics

Components of Successful Water Recycling

COMING TO TERMS WITH NATURE: WATER REUSE NEW PARADIGM TOWARDS INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Towards an integral definition of water reuse

How to overcome people’s fear of reused water

What we know about natural water reuse

Natural water reuse origin

Situation by type of water body

Control

HELMINTH OVA CONTROL IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE FOR AGRICULTURAL REUSE

General Information

Helminth Ova in Wastewater and Sludge

Helminth Ova Characteristics

Helminth Ova Removal from Wastewater

Helminth Ova Inactivation in Sludge

Helminth Ova Inactivation in Faecal Sludge

Analytical Techniques

PHARMACOLOGY

BIOCHEMISTRY

ORGANIC CHEMICALS INVOLVED IN LIFE PROCESSES

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Polysaccharides

Lipids

Nucleic Acids

CARBON FIXATION

Carbon fixation in higher plants

Algae

Bacteria

Global photosynthesis and the atmosphere

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC RESPIRATION

Cellular Anaerobic Respiration

The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis

Fermentation

Anaerobic Metabolism and Humankind.

Future Direction

CELL THEORY, PROPERTIES OF CELLS AND THEIR DIVERSITY

The Composition of Life

Cell as the unit of life

The diversity of life

Cellular diversity

Tissue maintenance and renewal

Discussion

CELL MORPHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION

Cell organization

CELL NUCLEUS AND CHROMATIN STRUCTURE

The nucleus

The genome

Chromosomes

DNA replication

Nucleolus

Transcription

mRNA processing and turnover

tRNA processing and turnover

ORGANELLES AND OTHER STRUCTURES IN CELL BIOLOGY

The distribution and function of the mitochondrion

Distribution and structure of the chloroplast

An endosymbiotic origin for the mitochondrion and chloroplast

MITOSIS, CYTOKINESIS, MEIOSIS AND APOPTOSIS

The eukaryote cell cycle

Mitosis

Meiosis

Fertilization and development

Regulators of Cell cycle

Programmed cell death

CELL GROWTH REGULATION, TRANSFORMATION AND METASTASES

Signal molecules

Switches of intracellular molecules

Cell surface receptors

Cancer

PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Nucleoid

Cytoplasmic Matrix

The Cell Envelope

Components Exterior to the Cell Wall

Differentiation and multicellularity

PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY

The Archae, Cyanobacteria, Green phototrophs, and Deeply Branching Genera

The low G+C gram-positives

The high G+C gram-positives

The Planctomycetes, Spirochetes, Fibrobacter, Bacteroides and Fusobacteria

PROKARYOTE GENETICS

Mechanism of DNA Mutation, Transfer and Recombination in Bacteria

Mutation

Transformation

Transduction

Conjugation

Recombination in viruses

Prokaryote Genetics and Evolution

PROKARYOTIC GROWTH, NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY

Bacterial Cell Growth and Division

The bacterial cell cycle and its regulation

Bacterial Population Growth

Bacterial Nutrition

Energy generation

Bacterial Nutrient Stress Responses

MICROBIAL PATHOGENESIS AND ANTIBIOTICS

Microbial Disease and Pathogenesis in History

Foodborne and Water Borne Diseases

Air Borne Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Infections Acquired in Hospital

Prion Diseases

MENDELIAN GENETICS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

The Classical Theory of Direct Inheritance

Mendelian Genetics

Molecular Genetics

Population Genetics

CLASSICAL TO MODERN GENETICS

Bacillus subtilis

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Neurospora crassa

Aspergillus nidulans

Lotus corniculatus L. var. japonicus Regel

BACTERIAL AND YEAST GENETICS - A HISTORICAL ACCOUNT

Bacterial genetics

Yeast genetics

DIPLOID AND HAPLOID GENGETICS AND RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS

General Recombination

Recombination and Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes

Induction of Recombination

Establishment of Recombination

Structure and Function of the Synaptonema Complex (SC):

Transcription and Recombination

Somatic recombination/ Diploid Genetics

Genes and Proteins in Meiotic Cells / Haploid Cell Genetics

Meiosis and Environment

NON-MENDELIAN INHERITANCE

Chloroplast Inheritance

Mitochondrial Inheritance

GENOME ANALYSIS OF CYANOBACTERIA

Sequence Features of the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Genome

Assignment of RNA and Protein-Coding Genes in the Synechocystis Genome

Characteristic Features of Synechocystis Genes

Functional Genomics in Synechocystis

Databases Supporting Synechocystis Research

Genome Analysis of Other Cyanobacteria

GENOME SCIENCE OF CYANOBACTERIA, GREEN ALGAE AND PLANTS (GENOME SCIENCE OF GREEN ALGAE)

Chlamydomonas as a model organism for plants

Nuclear genome

Chloroplast genome

Mitochondrial genome

GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

Introduction: Why is Arabidopsis a Model Plant Species?

Small Size and Simple Organization of the Arabidopsis Genome

Chromosomes and Maps

Analysis of the Complete Genome Sequence

Chromosomal Elements: Centromeres, Telomeres, and rDNA Repeats

Arabidopsis Plastid and Mitochrondrial Genomes

Functional Genomics of Arabidopsis

Perspectives

GENOME SCIENCE OF INVERTEBRATES: THE NEMATODE C.ELEGANS

What is a nematode?

What is C.elegans ?

Genetic resources of C.elegans: CGC

Genomic resources

Resources for gene expression and function

GENOME SCIENCE OF THE RAT

Genome Resources

Genetic Engineering

Positional Cloning of Monogenic Traits

QTL Analysis

GENOME SCIENCE OF VERTEBRATE

The Importance of the Mouse Genome and Transcriptome Study

The History of Mouse Genetics

The Determination of Mouse Genome Sequences

A Full-Length Mouse cDNA Project

Positional Cloning

cDNA Encyclopedia and the Positional Candidate Approach

Functional Genomics

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

DNA REPAIR

DNA Damage

DNA Repair by Reversal of Damage Without Excision

Base Excision Repair in Non-Mammalian Cells

Base Excision Repair in Mammalian Cells

Nucleotide Excision Repair in Non-Mammalian Cells

Nucleotide Excision Repair in Mammalian Cells

Mismatch Repair

Repair Enzymes in Mitochondria

SOS Responses

Recombination Repair

Human Hereditary Diseases with Defective Processing of DNA Damage

RECOMBINATION - TRANSFORMATION, TRANSDUCTION AND CONJUGATION

Recombination

Involvement of RNA in DNA Recombination

Recombination of RNA

Inverted Repeats

Conjugation

Transduction

Transformation

REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE AND CDNA SYNTHESIS

Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase

Characteristic Features of Retroviral Reverse Transcriptases

Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Other Organisms

Conserved Amino Acid Residues in Putative Reverse Transcriptase

Structure of Retroviral Reverse Transcriptases

cDNA Synthesis by Reverse Transcription

HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL GENE TRANSFER

Gene Transfer

Horizontal Gene Transfer

Vertical Gene Transfer

GENE ACTION IN INHERITANCE

Germline Development

Polar Granules, the Distinctive Organelles of Germ Plasm

Maternal Genes Required for Germ Plasm Assembly

Maternal Factors Required for Pole Cell Formation

Maternal Factors Required for Pole Cell Differentiation

Germ Plasm Components in Other Animals

GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC VARIATIONS

Brief Introduction to Historical Background

Brief Introduction to the Genetics of the Nematode Caenorhabditis

Uncoordinated Mutants of C. elegans

Other Mutants

Future Scope

MOLECULAR GENETICS OF INHERITED DISORDERS

Mutations

Effects of mutations on gene function

Molecular pathology of the human ß-globin gene.

Patterns of inheritance

HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT; LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN PLANTS AND FUNGI

Historical aspects of analysis of respond to light

Plants; Arabidopsis thaliana

Fungi; Neurospora crassa

HUMAN GENETICS

Human Genetics and Medical Genetics

Historical Aspects of Human Genetics

Genetic Diseases

Genetic Services

Gene Therapy

GENETICS AND SOCIETY

GENE EXPRESSION AND EMBRYOGENESIS IN AMPHIBIANS

Historical background

The search for inducing factors

The Responding Tissue

Autoneuralization and the Neural Default Hypothesis

Organizer and Antiorganizers

The importance of gradients for the anterior-posterior organization of the embryo

Germ layer determination – the three-signal (cascade)-model

Planar versus vertical signal during neural induction

Amphibians – a model system for organ engineering

INTEGRATING ETHNOGRAPHIC AND ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY FIELD RESEARCH

Anthropological (Ethnographic) Field Methods

Integrating Ethnographic and Ecological Field Methods

MANAGING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL DATA: HERBARIA, RELATIONAL DATABASES, LITERATURE

Historical trends

Present trends

TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES

Protozoa

Helminths

THE FUTURE OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY: SEEKING A TRANSDISCIPLINARY AND CULTURALLY GERMANE SCIENCE

Introduction – Defining Ethnopharmacology

Objectives of Ethnopharmacology Research

Future Trends

FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH

REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY TO INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE

Introduction

Economic Anthropology

International Development

Contributions of Economic Anthropology to International Development Practice

Conclusion

Notes

BIOANTHROPOLOGY

Introduction: Concepts, Disciplines and Trends

New Insights on Human Evolution

New Insights on Primates and Evolutionary Biology

Body Dimensions and Sexual Dimorphism in Bioanthropology

PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT ENVIRONMENT ON HUMANS

Light and human