Air, Water, Sediment and Soil Pollution Modelling

Edited by : Bhaskar Nath,

European Center for Pollution Research, UK

1. Current Problems of Air, Water and Soil Pollution.

(Introduction to air, water and soil pollution. Some of the man-made chemical pollutants of growing concern such as polychlorinated biphenyls, metals and organics, halogenated aliphatics, monocyclic aromatics, endocrine disrupters, etc. Global problems of global warming and climate change; stratospheric ozone depletion; ocean acidification; loss of biodiversity; population growth, human greed and open-ended aspiration and standard of living. Characteristic behaviour of complex non-linear environmental systems; example of the Euler Strut Thermodynamics of equilibrium --- first and second laws of hermodynamics; Gibb’s Free Energy and equilibrium. The Earth as a living biogeochemical entity; its carrying capacity and self-regenerative capacity (SRC) using the Malthusian paradigm in Economics)

2. Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Air, Water and Soil

(Principal transport mechanisms such as advection, dispersion, sediment transport and compartmentalization. Simple models of pollutant transport. Mass balance equation --- plug-flow system in rivers as an example. Steady-state material balance. Transport processes ---- advection, diffusion and film theory of mass transfer. Diffusion of momentum; fluid-solid interface; Langmuir, BET and Freundlich isotherms. Fluid-fluid interface; ideal, nonideal and ionic solutions; sediment-water interface).

3. Modelling in General and Environmental Modelling in Particular

(Historical background; scope and purpose of system modelling; conceptual models; physical models, mathematical models; analogue and digital approaches to mathematical modelling of environmental systems; pollution in rivers; contamination of groundwater; climate change and general circulation models)

4. Mathematics for system modelling in one two and three dimensions

(Integral and differential approaches to modelling. Integral equation approach --- introduction to “Green’s Function” and the “Kernal Function”, Fredholm integral equations and the Volterra equation. Integral equations of the first (eigenvalue) and second kind; reduction to the matrix form; Introduction to the differential form; the Field Equations --- the Laplace Equation, the Poisson Equation, the Diffusion Equation and the Schrödinger Equation in one, two and three dimensions. Strategies for the numerical solution of these equations using the Finite Difference Method, the Finite Element Method, and the Finite Volume Method. Reduction to the matrix form. Treatment of Dirichlet, Neumann and mixed boundary conditions).

5. Air Pollution --- Causes, Effects and Control

(Structure of the atmosphere; mixing and circulation. Temperature profile across the atmosphere; velocity and temperature profiles of the Boundary Layer and its main functions. Wet and dry deposition. Main primary and secondary air pollutants, how they are caused (major point and non-point sources) , and strategies for their control; transportation and dispersion of pollutants in the Boundary Layer; effects of air pollutants on ecosystems and human and animal health. Risk assessment. Air quality standards and other control strategies).

6. Air Pollution Modelling

(Historical background. Global, regional and non-hydrostatic model. The governing equations; equations of motion in spherical coordinates; discretization of the problem domain and problem formulation using numerical procedures such as the Finite Element Method and/or the Finite Volume Method. Initial and boundary conditions and their numerical treatmen. Determination of dispersion parameters for use in Gaussian models of point source dispersion. Description of the Phoenics Air Pollution modelling software and of how it does what it does. A typical application of the Phoenics package).

7. Water Pollution --- Causes, Effects and Treatment

(Contamination of surface water: surface water runoff and stream flow; chemical and biological processes that degrade surface waters and the kinetics of these processes; main pollutants in domestic and industrial wastewaters; mechanisms of pollutant transport (sediment relocation and pore water processes); main impacts of polluted water on ecosystems and human and animal health. Primary wastewater treatment (sedimentation, flocculation and settling); secondary wastewater treatment (aerated lagoon, activated sludge); tertiary wastewater treatment (adsorption, filtration, stripping, ion exchange and membrane processes).

8. Water Pollution Modelling

(Models of the dynamics of pollutants in surface waters (the Lake Model, the Stream Model and the Basic Model). Mass balance equation of pollutants in rivers; the modified Streeter-Phelps Equation; dissolved oxygen. Groundwater contaminants: Darcy’s law and equation of motion; equation governing solute transport; bio-film and bio-availability; bio-transformations; finite element solution of flow in a partially saturated medium using logarithmically condensed physical space. Example of a typical problem solved with the Phoenics package).

9. Soil Pollution ---- Causes, Effects and Remediation

(Definition of soil pollution and how it is caused. Common organic and inorganic soil contaminants. Permeability, porosity and other physical properties of soil. Sediment structure and processes. Transport of contaminants in soil. Fluid flow in fully saturated and partially saturated soil media. Main impacts of contaminated soil on ecosystems and human and animal health. Methods of remediation of contaminated soils: landfilling; incineration; solidification; ex-situ bioremediation; in-situ remediation processes such as vacuum extraction in the unsaturated zone; in-situ bioremediation of soils; pump and treat extraction of contaminated groundwater, etc.)