ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ENERGY SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

THE ROLE OF WELL LOGGING IN FORMATION EVALUATION

Introduction

Concepts of Open Hole Logs

ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING AQUEOUS PHASE CHEMICALS,MISCIBLE GAS INJECTION, AND THERMAL MEANS

Introduction

Oil Recovery

Mobility Alteration and EOR

Example EOR Field Projects

LIQUID AND GAS FUELS CHEMISTRY

PETROLEUM: CHEMISTRY, REFINING, FUELS AND PETROCHEMICALS-BASICS

Definitions and Terminology

Composition

Properties

PETROLEUM: CHEMISTRY, REFINING, FUELS AND PETROCHEMICALS - PRODUCT TREATING

Introduction

Caustic Processes

Acid Processes

Clay and Related Processes

Oxidative Processes

Solvent Processes

Gas Treating

EFFICIENT USE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

Energy Resources

Industrial Energy Management Program

Progress in Industrial Energy Efficiency

EFFICIENT USE OF ELECTRICITY IN PROCESS OPERATION

Motors and Drives

Compressed Air Systems

Process Heat

Electrolysis

Electrical-Efficiency Trends

EFFICIENT USE OF FOSSIL FUELS IN PROCESS OPERATION

Combustion

Boilers

Steam Systems

Process Heat

Trends

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SPECIFIC INDUSTRIAL SEGMENTS

Selected Industries Overview

Aluminum Industry

Steel Industry

TOTAL PLANT ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Total Plant Energy Balance

On-Site Generation

Thermal-Energy Storage

Heat Recovery

EFFICIENT USE OF LIGHTING IN BUILDINGS

Illumination

Energy Efficiency in Lighting

Retrofit Technologies

EFFICIENT USE OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS

Chillers and Chilled-Water Systems

Cooling Towers

Air Conditioning Units

Heat Pumps

Packaged Terminal Equipment

Boilers and Furnaces

BUILDING ENVELOPE EFFICIENCY MEASURES

Exterior Walls

Windows

Rooftops and Ceilings

Foundations, Floors, and Basements

Infiltration and Ventilation

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION

Freight Truck

Pipeline

Rail Freight

Waterborne Freight

Air Freight

Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for Freight Transport

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN MASS TRANSIT SYSTEMS

Air

Bus

Transit Rail

Intercity Rail

Energy Efficiency Opportunities

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS

Personal Passenger Vehicle Travel

Energy Use Characteristics

Energy Efficiency Opportunities

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PUMPING AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Energy-Efficient Irrigation

Electric Pumping Plant Efficiency

Computerized Scheduling of Irrigation

Irrigation Load Management

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT

Crop Equipment

Livestock Equipment

Farm Motors and Drives

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN FERTILIZER PRODUCTION AND USE

Fertilization for Crop Productivity

Trends in Fertilizer Use

Energy Intensity of Fertilization

Energy-Efficient Fertilization Practices

USING DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT TO SELECT ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PROGRAMS

Demand-Side Management

DSM Impacts

The Benefits of DSM Evaluation

Market Transformation

EFFICIENT USE OF ELECTRICITY THROUGH DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT

The Use of Energy and Electricity

Technological Revolution

Energy Savings

Big-Ticket Items

DECIDING WHICH DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES TO PURSUE

Load-Shape Objectives

End Use

Technology Alternatives

MARKET IMPLEMENTATION METHODS

The Market Planning Framework

Factors Influencing Customer Acceptance and Response

Program Planning

Monitoring and Evaluation

EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN THE COMMERCIAL SECTOR

Building Sector Strategies and Programs

Building Market Segmentation

Buildings and Energy

BASIC EXERGY CONCEPTS

Energy and Exergy

Reference Environment and Exergy Components

Reference States and Chemical Exergy

Calculation of Chemical Exergy Values

EXERGY BALANCE AND EXERGETIC EFFICIENCY

Exergy Balance and Exergy Destruction

Exergetic Variables

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE PROCESSES

Thermodynamic Analysis of Single Components

Thermodynamic Analysis of Simple Processes

STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF EXERGY ANALYSIS

Evaluation

Optimization

Process development

ENERGETIC AND EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS

Steam Power Plant

Combined-Cycle Power Plant

Externally-Fired Combined-Cycle Power Plant

GRAPHIC EXERGY ANALYSIS

A New Approach to Thermodynamics

Graphic Applications of Thermodynamic Compass

Application of an Energy-Utilization Diagram (EUD)

PINCH ANALYSIS

Energy-Capital Trade-off for Heat Recovery by a Heat Exchanger

Defining the Minimum Energy Requirement of a Process

Consequences of the Pinch Point Location

Utility Integration

Targeting the Investment

Summary of the Targeting Method

Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Design

The Pinch Design Method

Mathematical Programming Approach

Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network Design

Final Remarks Concerning the Heat Exchanger Network Design

PROCESS INTEGRATION AND IMPROVEMENT

Introduction

Pinch Analysis and Process Improvement

Integration of Heat Pumps

Utility Integration

Methodology for Designing Integrated Utility Systems

Using the Exergy Depletion as the Objective Function

Representing the Integration of the Utility System

Final Remarks Concerning the Process Optimization and the Utility System Integration

THE THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS OF COST FORMATION

Definitions and concepts

Cost accounting and the exergy cost theory

On the nature of costs

SYMBOLIC THERMOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SYSTEMS

The Fuel-Product Model

The FP Representation

The PF Representation

Closure

STRUCTURAL THEORY OF THERMOECONOMICS

Marginal Costs

Thermoeconomics Methods

Structural Theory as Standard for Thermoeconomics

Applications

Closure

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

Concepts and Definitions

The Functional Diagram of a System

Functional Analysis of a System

Economic Functional Analysis

Functional Optimization

Closure

COST FUNCTIONS OF COMPONENTS FOR OPTIMAL SYSTEM DESIGN

Introduction to Multidisciplinary Problems

A Scenario of Interdisciplinary Communication

The Concept of Costing Equations

The Information Exchange Matrix of a Component

An Application Example to a Heat Exchange Device

Alternative Communication Scenarios and Applications

APPLICATION OF THERMOECONOMICS TO OPERATION DIAGNOSIS OF ENERGY PLANTS

Thermoeconomic Operation Diagnosis

APPLICATION OF THERMOECONOMICS TO THE DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF ENERGY PLANTS

Principles of Exergoeconomics Applied to Design Optimization

Cost Balances and Auxiliary Equations

Optimization with Exergoeconomics

MODELING AND SIMULATION METHODS

Introduction: "Modeling" versus "Simulation"

A Brief History of Energy Systems Design Procedures

Modeling

Direct versus Inverse Design: "Design" versus "Simulation"

Simulation Procedures

Special Topics

DESIGN AND OFF-DESIGN SIMULATION OF COMPLEX ENERGY SYSTEMS

Definitions

Position of the “Nameplate Simulation Problem”

Position of the “Steady-State Off-Design Simulation Problem”

Position of the “Unsteady Simulation Problem”

Solution Techniques

OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

Definition of Optimization

Formulation of the Optimization Problem

Levels of Optimization of Energy Systems

Mathematical Methods for Solution of the Optimization Problem

Special Methods for Optimization of Energy Systems

The Work Ahead

Introduction

OPERATION OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS

Statement of the Optimization Problem

Solution Methods

Application Example

Introduction

Conclusion

DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS

Discussion on the Uniqueness of the Solution of the Synthesis and Design Optimization Problem and on the Possibility of finding this Solution.

Approaches to the Optimal Synthesis of Energy Systems

Mathematical Statement of the Complete Optimization Problem

Representative Methods for the Solution of the Synthesis Optimization Problem

Application Examples

Introduction

Conclusion

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF POWER AND COGENERATION SYSTEMS

The Optimal System Design for Time-independent Production

An Application Example of Time-Independent Production

The Optimal System Design for Time-dependent Production

Application Examples of Time-dependent Production

Introduction

Concluding Remarks

ELECTRICAL NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

Transmission System Optimal Expansion Planning

Transmission System Operational Requirements

Statement of the Optimization Problem

Optimization Methodologies

Introduction

Conclusion

DISTRICT HEATING NETWORKS CALCULATION AND OPTIMIZATION

Pipe Networks

The Engineering Problem

The Model

The Solution Strategies

An Example

The Optimization versus the Simulation Problem

PETROLEUM PIPELINE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

Optimization

Pipelines

Pipeline Design

Energy Savings

Pump Application and Design

Pipeline Construction

Optimization Example

Introduction

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ENERGY SYSTEMS: SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

Introduction: Engineering Design, Knowledge, and Artificial Intelligence

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Definitions of Concepts and Terms

Relational Versus Deterministic Programming

Possible Versus Existing Applications of AI to Thermal Systems

Logical Systems

Semantic Networks

Fuzzy Sets

Neural Networks

Casual Versus Mechanical Learning: "Memory"

Search Methods

Handling of Constraints

Qualitative and Approximate Reasoning: Belief

EXPERT SYSTEMS AND KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

General Knowledge representation for design purposes

The Knowledge Acquisition Problem

Knowledge Decomposition: Semantic Networks

Present Knowledge Acquisition methods

A look into the future: Potential Developments

PRESENT APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO ENERGY SYSTEMS

Possible Applications

Existing Applications

A look into the future: Potential Applications

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN COMPONENT DESIGN

Characterization of the Design Process

Expert Systems, Expert Assistants and Expert Advisors

The task of "Designing a Component"

Selection and Design of a Feedwater Pump

Choice and Design of a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PROCESS DESIGN

Is There a "Universal" Design Paradigm?

Application of the Universal Design Procedure to Process Engineering Problems

Design and "Optimization." Direct and Inverse Problems

Process Synthesizers

Process Optimization: The Classical Viewpoint

LIFE-CYCLE, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS - SUSTAINABILITY

Extension of the concept of "Optimal System"

The tools required for an extended analysis

Application of the tools Implementation issues and possible solutions

Towards what kind of sustainable society?

Closure

STATIC AND DYNAMIC POLLUTION AND RESOURCE RELATED INDICES

The Nature of Indicators or Indices

Indicators derived by the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method

Exergy-based Indices

Resource Indicators

Sustainability Indicators for Energy System Assessment

Indices derived by the ExternE Project

Introduction

ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS

The Environomic Optimization Problem

Methods for Estimating External Environmental Costs

Market-Based Approaches for Internalizing Environmental Externalities

Additional Considerations

Application Examples on Analysis and/or Evaluation

Application Examples on Optimization

Closure

Introduction

GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Significance of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Dissipation of Energy

Influence of the Laws of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics

Influence of Solar Radiation on the State of the Terrestrial Environment

Influence of the Emission of Deleterious Waste Products and Deforestation

Depletion of Non-renewable Natural Resources

Conservation of the Natural Environment

NATIONAL EXERGY ACCOUNTING OF NATURAL RESOURCES

The Energy Supply System

Exergy use in Swedish society

Exergy use in Japanese society

Exergy use in the Italian Society

A Historical and Global perspective

GLOBAL EXERGY ACCOUNTING OF NATURAL RESOURCES

The exergy replacement cost

Results

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY CONDITIONS FOR PREMISES AND BUILDINGS

Composition of atmospheric air

Temperature & humidity measurement instruments

Thermal sensation and comfort in heated areas

CO-GENERATION

General aspects

The present and the future of co-generation

Modern co-generation techniques

Operation modes of co-generation systems

Applications of co-generation

Advantages and disadvantages of co-generation

DISTRICT HEATING

Why district heating?

Heating plant central unit

Design of district heating systems

Cost issues

Environmental issues

LOW CAPACITY SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

Heaters

Fireplaces

Air heaters

Autonomous heating units

Heat accumulators

Heating by power conductors incorporated in the floor, walls or ceiling

HEAT PUMPS FOR SPACE HEATING

General Principles

Heat Pump Technology

Heat pump components

Types of Heat Pumps

Applications of heat pumps

Advantages and disadvantages of heat pumps

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Sick Buildings

Air Pollution Sources

The Role of Ventilation

NATURAL VENTILATION

Wind Data and Climatic Conditions

Simulation Tools

Experimental Work

Research Activities

MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND EQUIPMENT

Systems

Equipment

Air Distribution

SPACE LOADS & ENERGY CONSERVATION

Calculation of Ventilation Loads

Energy Conservation

FILTERS & MAINTENANCE

Filter Characteristics

Types of Filters

Maintenance

AIR CONDITIONING

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY BALANCE OF PREMISES

Principles of Heat Transfer in Buildings

Heat Sources and Heat Sinks in Premises

Humidity Sources and Humidity Sinks in Premises

Principles of Psychrometry - Definitions

The Psychrometric Chart

Enthalpy Changes - Relations between Temperature and Humidity

Systems for Humidification - Dehumidification

POWER PLANT COMBUSTION THEORY

Combustion Fundamentals

Combustion Calculations

Energy Balances

Air-Fuel Ratios

Heat of Combustion

Combustion products

NUCLEAR FISSION THEORY

Nuclear Physics

Energy Levels

Nuclear Interactions

Radiative Capture Models

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactors

THERMAL FLUID THEORY

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Boiling and Condensing

Heat Exchangers

Two Phase Flow

Fluid Friction

Fluid Circulation

THERMODYNAMIC THEORY

Fundamental Equations

Thermodynamic Laws

Thermodynamic Cycles

Steam Turbine Applications

POWER PLANT STEAM CYCLE THEORY

Cycle Efficiencies

Turbine Expansion Lines

EXERGY ANALYSIS

Available Energy and Availability

Heat Exchangers

Steam Turbines

Complete Steam Cycle

Thermo-economic Analysis

POWER PLANT MATERIALS

Metals and their Properties

CONDITION ASSESSMENT AND LIFE EXTENSION

Refurbishment versus Replacement

Material Characteristics

Plant Operational Conditions

Component Inspection and Testing

Life Assessment

Inspection and Reassessment

FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER PLANT CONFIGURATION

Basic Design

Boiler Structure

Boiler Auxiliaries

Boiler Back-end Components

FOSSIL FUEL HANDLING

Liquid and Gaseous Fuel Handling

Solid Fuel Handling

Pulverising Mills

FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Pulverized Coal Burners

Cyclone Furnaces

Stokers

Fluidized Beds

Coal Gasification

Gas and Oil

Environmental Considerations

FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER WATER-STEAM SYSTEM

Furnace Design

Water Circulation

Boiler Drum

Superheaters and Reheaters

Economizers

FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER AIR AND GAS PATH

General Principles

Fan Characteristics

Air Heaters

Sootblowers

Gas Cleanup Facilities

FOSSIL FUEL WASTE PRODUCT HANDLING

Exhaust Gas

Electrostatic Precipitators

Baghouses

Flue Gas Desufurization

Nitrogen Oxides Removal

Carbon Dioxide

Exhaust Gas Stacks

Ash

Ash Handling Systems

Ash Disposal Systems

Environmental Considerations

FOSSIL FUEL PLANT MATERIALS AND CHEMISTRY

Introduction: A Typical Plant

Materials Applications

Chemistry Considerations

NUCLEAR REACTOR CONFIGURATION

General Principles

Reactor Types

The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) or CANDU

The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR)

The Light Water Graphite Reactor (LGR) or RMBK

NUCLEAR REACTOR HEAT REMOVAL

Thermodynamic Considerations

Reactor Heat Transfer

NUCLEAR REACTOR STEAM GENERATION

Steam Generation

Steam Generator Operation

Steam System

NUCLEAR REACTOR MATERIALS AND CHEMISTRY

Introduction - Reactor Types

Boiling Water Reactors

Pressurised Water Reactors

CANDU Reactors

STEAM TURBINE CONFIGURATION

Design Principles

Design Features

STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING

Turbine Classification

Velocity Diagrams

Stage Design

STEAM TURBINE COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS

Turbine Cylinder Configuration

Turbine Seals

Turbine Bearings

STEAM TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM

Main Steam System

Reheating and Feedheating

Condenser

Condenser Operation

STEAM TURBINE OPERATIONAL ASPECTS

Turbine Losses

Supersaturation

Turbine Expansion Line

Moisture in Turbine

Part Load Operation

Turbine Back Pressure

Thermal Effects

Turbine Governing

AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS AND COOLING TOWERS

Cooling Towers

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers

Dry/wet and wet/dry Cooling Systems

GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS

Gas Turbines for Electric Power Generation : Introduction

Basics of gas turbine operation

Ideal Cycles

Real Cycles

Combined Cycles

Cogeneration Plant

Off-design Performance

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

Current Gas Turbines

Combined cycles

Cogeneration

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

Electrical Power Theory

Electrical Generators

Electrical Transformers

Electrical Generator Configuration

Power Transmission Components

THE ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY GAS TURBINE COGENERATION OPTION WITH A HYBRID MSF/RO DESALINATION

Introduction

The Conventional Cogeneration System (System 1)

An Improved Hybrid MSF-SWRO Cogeneration System (System 2)

A Case Study

Results

Conclusions

BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM ELECTROMAGNETISM

Notation

Relativistic Wave Equations

Angular Momentum and Spin

Interpretation of the 4 Components of Dirac’s Wave Function

Lorentz Invariance and Gamma Matrices

Electromagnetic Interactions

Field Theory

The Electromagnetic Field and its Interactions

Experimental Support for Quantum Electromagnetism

NATURAL AND ADDITIONAL ENERGY

Energy

Energy-Conversion Technologies

Energy Use

Energy Selection

Energy Efficiency

Energy and Sustainable Development

Case Study: Increasing Energy-Utilization Efficiency Cost-Effectively in a University

Closing Remarks

ENERGY SUPPLY: ARE WE RUNNING OUT OF ENERGY?

Oil

Natural Gas

Coal

Nuclear Energy

Other Energy Sources

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE:AN UNAVOIDABLE REQUIREMENT FOR THE FUTURE

Renewable Energy Sources

Barriers to Change

Future Directions

THE ORIGIN OF COAL AND WORLD RESERVES

Origin of Coal

The Coal Reserves of the World

Prospect in Origin of Coal and Coal Reserves of the World

COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING

Coal Exploration

Coal Mining

Brief Prospect for Coal Exploration and Mining

COAL GEOLOGY

History of Coal Geology Research

Recent Advance in Coal Geology

CLASSIFICATION OF COAL

Parameters of coal classification

Classification systems in some main coal industry countries

International classification of coals

ORGANIC AND INORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY OF COAL

Organic Geochemistry of Coal

Inorganic Geochemistry of Coal

MINERAL MATTER IN COAL

Minerals in coal

Trace elements in coal

Origin of mineral matter in coal

Methods of analysis and determination of mineral matter in coal

Significance of research on mineral matter in coal

COAL STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

Characterization of Coal

Macromolecular Structure

Coal Properties

PREPARATION AND TRANSPORTATION OF COAL

Coal Preparation

Transportation of Coal

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY

PCC with flue gas cleaning units

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

Combined heat and power (CHP) applications

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

Sulfur in Coal

Coal Cleaning for Sulfur Removal

In-bed Desulfurization

Flue Gas Desulfurization

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ARISING FROM COAL HANDLING AND PROCESSING

Origins, Modes of Occurrence, and Emissions of Pollutants

Environmental Impacts

Regulations and Standards

Control Measures

COAL COMBUSTION AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

Basic Process of Coal Combustion

Coal Combustion Technology and Facilities

Coal Combustion Products

THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF COAL

Fundamentals of Thermal Decomposition of Coal

Parameters Affecting Thermal Decomposition of Coal

Processes of Thermal Decomposition

CARBONIZATION OF COAL

Coal Preparation for Coke-oven Use

High-temperature Coke

Coke Oven

Byproduct Recovery and Gas Purification

Prospect

COAL GASIFICATION

Chemistry of Coal Gasification

Coal Gasification Process

Applications of Coal Gasification

LIQUEFACTION OF COAL

Direct Liquefaction

Indirect Coal Liquefaction

ORIGIN AND RESOURCES OF WORLD OIL SHALE DEPOSITS

Definition of Oil Shale

Origin of Organic Matter

Oil Shale Types

Thermal Maturity

Recoverable Resources

Determining the Grade of Oil Shale

Resource Evaluation

Descriptions of Selected Deposits

World Resources

Future of Oil Shale

MINING OF OIL SHALE

Oil Shale Mining in Estonia and Russia

Oil Shale Mining in China

Oil Shale Mining in the USA

Oil Shale Mining in Brazil

EXTRACTION OF OIL SHALE: SURFACE AND IN-SITU RETORTING

Surface Retorting Processes

In Situ Retorting Processes

CHEMISTRY OF SHALE OIL AND ITS REFINING

Composition and Properties of Shale Oil

Shale Oil Refining

Shale Oil Processing in the World

CHEMICALS AND OTHER PRODUCTS FROM SHALE OIL

Shale oil cracking products

Separation products

Products of compounding and chemical treatment of shale oil fractions

The products on the basis of shale oil water soluble phenols

Potential new fields on using of shale oil phenols

Products from Kashpir shale oil (Russia)

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF OIL SHALE AND POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

Wastewater Composition and its Treatment

Air Pollution due to the Emissions from Oil Shale Plant

Shale Ash Disposal and Utilization

GEOLOGY OF NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

Distribution and Structure of the ReservoirDeposit

Origin of Bitumen and Heavy Oil

Tar Sand Structure

Tar Sand Properties

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL

Character

Composition

Chemical Composition and Chemistry

Properties

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

Geology and Mineralogy of Natural Bitumen and Heavy Oil Reservoirs

Permeability and Porosity

Mineralogy

Bitumen Saturation

MINING TECHNOLOGY FOR NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL

Mining Technology for Natural Bitumen and Heavy Oil

Oil Mining

Open Pit Mining

EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Chemical Methods

Thermal Methods

Hot Water Process

Other Processes

Environmental Aspects

UPGRADING AND REFINING OF NATURAL BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL

Coking Processes

Product Upgrading

Other Processes

The Future

CLASSIFICATION OF PEAT AND PEATLAND

Characteristics of peat and peatland

The main components of peat

Composition of peat-forming plants

Peat stratigraphy

Classifications systems

CONDITIONS OF PEAT FORMATION

Geological and Geomorphic Factors

Hydrological Factors

Soil Conditions

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PEAT

Physical properties of peat

Chemical properties of peat

Physiochemical properties of peat

Peat properties in some countries of the world

THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF PEAT

Distribution Pattern of Global Peatland

CUTTING AND PROCESSING OF PEAT

Peat accumulation

Assessment of peat layers

Harvesting of peat

Energy use of peat

Conversion

Non-energy use of peat

Environmental aspects of peat extraction and removal

ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY ALTERNATIVES TO PEAT

Peat as growing medium

Composting

Peat as a bedding material of animals

Cleaning of waste waters

Biological air purification

Oil absorbing peat

Activated carbon

Peat balneology

Peat textiles

Other potentialities

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PEAT CUTTING AND REMOVAL

Impacts into watercources

After use of cutover areas

NUCLEAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND REACTORS

NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Fundamental Concepts

Atomic Structure

Radioactivity

Binding Energy

NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS

Neutron Interactions

Nuclear Cross Sections

Neutron Scattering and Capture

Neutron Moderation

Fission and Fusion

NUCLEAR REACTOR THEORY

Neutron Diffusion Characteristics

Neutron Diffusion Equation

One Group Reactor Equation

Reactor Equation Applications

Neutron Flux and Power

NUCLEAR REACTOR DESIGN

Basic Principles

Basic Theory

Neutron Energy Production

Fast Fission and Resonance Absorption

Neutron Leakage

Output Enhancement

Reactor Configuration

NUCLEAR REACTOR KINETICS

Reactor Kinetics

Reactor Operation

Critical Conditions

Nuclear Reactor Startup

REACTIVITY CHANGES

Introduction

Fission Product Effects

Fuel Effects

Temperature Effects

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

BOILING WATER REACTORS

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

PRESSURIZED HEAVY WATER REACTORS

Introduction

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

Safeguard and Future Prospects

HEAVY WATER LIGHT WATER REACTORS

Introduction

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

Engineered Safeguards

Conclusion

ADVANCED GAS COOLED REACTORS

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

Safeguards and Future Prospects

LIGHT WATER GRAPHITE REACTORS

Introduction

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

Engineered Safeguards and Safety Aspects

HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTORS

General Configuration

Core Arrangement

Fuel Characteristics and Management

Heat Transport

Steam Cycle

Operational and Safety Aspects

PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR

General Description

Technical Description

Fuel Handling and Storage System

Plant Layout and Equipment Arrangements

Safety Design Specification

Discussion

RADIATION, NUCLEAR CYCLES AND NUCLEAR WASTE

RADIOACTIVE WASTES, ORIGINS, CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT

Radioactivity and Radioactive Wastes

Categories Of Radioactive Wastes

Radioactive waste management and disposal options

NUCLEAR REACTOR OVERVIEW AND REACTOR CYCLES

Nuclear Reactors and an Overview of Nuclear History

Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Reactor Development

Commercial Reactor Types

Reactor Cycles

THE NUCLEAR REACTOR CLOSED CYCLE

The Closed Nuclear Cycle

Uranium Mining, Processing, Refining

Conversion to UF6

Enrichment

Depleted Uranium

Fuel Fabrication

Reactor Operation, Maintenance Wastes, and Spent Fuel

Spent Fuel Interim Storage, Prior to Reprocessing or Disposal

Fuel Reprocessing, Fuel Re-cycling and Advanced Reactors

NUCLEAR SAFETY

SAFETY OF BOILING WATER REACTORS

Nuclear reactor designs

Nuclear reactor safety design

Power Peaking Factors

BWR Core Thermal Limits

Nuclear Power Plant Security

Next Generation Reactor Designs

SUPERCRITICAL WATER-COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS: REVIEW AND STATUS

Survey of Concepts of Nuclear Reactors at Supercritical Pressures

Supercritical Water-Cooled CANDU Reactor Concept

THE GAS-TURBINE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR

GT-MHR Design Objectives

GT-MHR Design Description

GT-MHR Safety

GT-MHR Economic Competitiveness

GT-MHR Environmental Benefits

GT-MHR Proliferation Resistance

Hydrogen Production Using the MHR

Development Pathway

APPLICATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT TO NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Risk

Use of Data

Results

Data

Data Update

PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING RESOURCES FOR NUCLEAR FISSION

Recycling of Initial U235 in the PWRs

Recycling Pu in Uranium Support Fuels

Uranium Recycling in Thorium Support Fuels

ENERGY CARRIERS AND CONVERSION SYSTEMS WITH EMPHASIS ON HYDROGEN

Energy Resources

Proposed Systems and the Elementary Technologies

Metal Hydrides and Hydrogen

Safety

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN

Introduction

Physical and Chemical Properties

STATISTICS ON HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Statistics

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS

Hydrogen Production

Hydrogen Storage and Transport

Hydrogen Utilization

Transition to Hydrogen Economy

International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE KEY TECHNOLOGIES OF HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEMS- AN INTRODUCTORY REVIEW FOR THE BEGINNERS

Formation of Hydrogen energy systems

Review of Elemental Technologies

Innovative WSS systems

Hydrogen storage

Fuel cells (FCs)

Annotations

THERMODYNAMICS OF WATER SPLITTING

Introduction: Fundamentals

Electrolysis of Water

Thermochemical Water Splitting

ALKALINE WATER-ELECTROLYSIS

Structure of Alkaline Water Electrolyzers

Advanced Water Electrolyzers

High Temperature, High Pressure Operation

Structural Materials

System Design

Control System

Examples of Advanced Electrolyzers

Cost of Alkaline Water Electrolysis

SPE WATER ELECTROLYSIS AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

SPE Water Electrolysis: Introduction

High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTE)

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL-WATER ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

Total System

Requirements of Electrolyzer

Operation

THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Thermochemical Cycles

THERMOLYSIS

Thermolysis and Direct Thermal Decomposition

PHOTOCHEMICAL AND PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL WATER SPLITTING

Photoelectrochemical Approaches

Photochemical and Photocatalytic Processes

HYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS (1)

Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Bacteria)

Biological Hydrogen Production by Non-Photosynthetic Microorganisms

Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Mixed Culture with Non-Photosynthetic Bacteria

HYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS (2)

Overall Scope

Thermochemical Biomass Gasification

Biomethanation

Hydrothermal Gasification

SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF HYDROGEN

Partial Condensation

Absorption Methods

Adsorption Methods

Membrane Separation

Separation by Metal Hydrides

HYDROGEN AND NATURAL GAS MIXTURE

Burner Combustion of Natural Gas Mixed with Hydrogen

Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixtures for Internal Combustion Engines

HANDLING AND SAFETY OF HYDROGEN

Safety Aspects of Gaseous Hydrogen

Safety Aspects of Liquid Hydrogen

Safety Aspects of Metal Hydrides

Materials for Safe Handling

Detection of Hydrogen and its Fires

Basic Measures for Safe Handling

VEHICLES WITH HYDROGEN-AIR FUEL CELLS

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Fuel Cell System

Propulsion Configurations

Systems with Onboard Reforming

Fuel Cell and Fuel Cell System Efficiency

Automotive Fuel Cell Technical Specifications: Status and Targets

Prototype Fuel Cell Vehicles

SOME INFORMATION ON THE HYDROGEN COMBUSTION PROCESS AND ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Hydrogen Combustion Data

Space Rocket and the Hydrogen Fuel

Design of Supersonic (Hypersonic) Aircraft

An Experiment of Hydrogen/Oxygen Turbine for Power Plant

PRESSURIZED HYDROGEN STORAGE

Pressurized Hydrogen Storage

Safety Points

Technical Development of Storage Vessels for Pressurized Hydrogen and Actual Examples of Pressurized Hydrogen Storage

Web Sites for Reference

HYDROGEN STORAGE BY CHEMICAL HYDRIDES

Metalhydrides, Energy Storage, and Other Applications

Hydrogen Storage by Using Organic Compounds, etc.

HYDROGEN STORAGE BY GLASS MICROSPHERES AND OTHERS

Activated Carbon

Graphite Nanofibers and Carbon Nanotubes

Glass Microspheres

Zeolite

HYDROGEN LIQUEFACTION

Process of Refining Source Hydrogen

Ortho-Para Conversion Method

Liquefaction Process

LIQUID-HYDROGEN STORAGE

Insulation of Liquid Hydrogen Tank

Selection of Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks by Purpose

Type and Shape of Liquid Hydrogen Storage Facilities

Carriers for Liquid Hydrogen Transportation

TRANSPORTATION OF HYDROGEN BY PIPELINE

Distinctive Features of Pipeline Transportation System

Equipment Constituting Pipeline Transportation System

Operation of Pipeline

BATCH-SYSTEMS OF HYDROGEN TRANSPORTATION

Pressurized Hydrogen Gas Batch Transportation System

Liquid Hydrogen Transportation System

Metal Hydride Transportation System

OCEAN TRANSPORTATION OF HYDROGEN

Liquid Hydrogen Property for Cargo

Problems of Liquid Hydrogen Tankers

Performance of Energy Transportation

AMMONIA ENERGY SYSTEM

Features of Ammonia Energy

Tanker Transportation

Ammonia Energy System

Ammonia Direct Use

ALCOHOL ENERGY SYSTEMS

Feature of methanol Energy system

Methanol Energy Systems

Methanol Direct Use

PHYSICS OF METAL HYDRIDES

The Stability of Hydrides

Crystal Structures of Metal hydrides

Examples of Crystal Structure of Ternary Hydrides

The Relation between Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Properties

Electronic Properties of Ternary Hydrides

Electronic Structures of LaNi5 and its hydride

KINDS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROGEN STORAGE ALLOY

Classification of Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Characteristics of A2B Alloys

Characteristics of AB Alloys

Properties of AB2 Alloys

Properties of AB5 Alloys

Novel Materials

METAL HYDRIDE AIR-CONDITIONING

Alloys Used for Metal Hydride Air-Conditioning (heat pump, heat storage)

Theme of R&D for MH Heat Pump System

Practical Applications

METAL HYDRIDE BATTERIES

General Background

Battery Structure and Performances

EV Application

OTHER APPLICATIONS (ACTUATOR, HYDROGEN PURIFICATION AND ISOTOPE SEPARATION)

Actuator

Hydrogen Purification

Isotope Separation

ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL

Principle of Electricity Generation by Fuel Cells

Electricity Generation Characteristics of Fuel Cells

Fuel Cell Efficiency

REFORMING SYSTEMS FOR FUEL CELLS

Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

Fuel Processing System

ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

Background

Cell Structure

Features of Alkaline Fuel Cells

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

Principle of Operation

Construction

Features

System Configuration

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELLS

Cell Structure

Features of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

Cell Lifetime

Plant Experiences

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

Principle of Operation and Construction of MCFCs

Electric Power Generation System

Power Generation Characteristics

Gradation Phenomena

Problems in MCFC Development

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

Cell Component Materials

Cell Structure

Applications

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELLS

Commercial Applications

Distributed Regional Installations

Electric Utility Applications

Industrial Applications

Application in Mobile Power Sources

Home-use Power Sources

Emergency-use Power Supplies

Integrated Hydrogen Energy System Combined with Renewable Energy Sources

INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF APPLICATIONS

RATIONALE OF ENERGY STORAGE AND SUPPLY/DEMAND MATCHING

Thermodynamic Considerations. Energy and Exergy (Availability)

Cases

Computational Tools

STORAGE OF SENSIBLE HEAT

Classification and Principles of Storage of Sensible Heat

Solid Storage Materials

Liquid Storage Materials

Gaseous Storage Materials

Applications

Examples of Large Stores and Experience

Small Water Stores

High Temperature Thermal Storage, Regenerators (Cowper)

STORAGE OF THERMAL ENERGY BY CHANGE OF PHASE

Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Systems

The Thermodynamic Analysis of a Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage System

Results

BOND ENERGY

Basic considerations and definitions

Heat storage and heat transformation

Examples of storage systems and applications

COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE

Introduction

Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies

CAES Technology - World-wide Status

Thermodynamics Aspects of CAES Technology

Techno-economical Aspects of CAES Technology

Turbo-machinery and Above-Ground Plant

Below-Ground Reservoir

Novel CAES Alternatives

Conclusions

PUMPED WATER ENERGY STORAGE

Matching Demand and Supply in Electrical Power Systems

Types, Economic Considerations and Historical Development

Characteristics of Pumped Water Storage Plants

Main Components of Pumped Water Storage Plant

An Example Pumped Water Storage Plant

System Hydraulics

Example Calculations

FLYWHEELS AND SUPER-FLYWHEELS

Applications

Flywheel design

Historical perspective of flywheel design

Stress Analysis and Specific Energy Calculations of Flywheels

Sample Solutions for Design Optimization of Flywheels

Discussions of Design Optimization

BATTERIES AND THEIR CHEMISTRY

Secondary Batteries

Battery Storage System

Electric Vehicle Batteries

SUPERCONDUCTING INDUCTIVE COILS

Principle of Operation

Importance of Energy Storage

A Brief History of Superconductivity and SMES Systems

General Structure of SMES Systems

Application Areas of SMES Systems

Advantages and Benefits of SMES Systems

Examples of Practical Applications

Design Considerations

A Case Study

Future of SMES Systems

CAPACITIVE STORAGE

Linear and Nonlinear Capacitors

Capacitance Definitions for Linear Capacitors

Capacitance definitions for nonlinear capacitors

Charging of a capacitor as an RC circuit

Discharging of a capacitor as an RCL circuit

Energy storage capacitors

SPINNING RESERVES

Utility System as a Spinning Reserve

Batteries

Flywheel - Generator Combination as Spinning Reserve

Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)

Applications

Future Perspective and Conclusions

STORAGE OF HYDROGEN

Introduction

Gaseous Hydrogen

Liquid Hydrogen

Slush Hydrogen

Metal Hydrides

Liquid Hydrides

Cryogenic Adsorption

Carbon Nanostructures

Hydrogen Producing Systems

Comparison among storage systems

Conclusion

Conclusion

STORAGE OF FOSSIL FUELS (GASEOUS AND LIQUID)

Storage of gaseous fossil fuels

Storage of liquid fossil fuels

STORAGE OF COAL: PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS

Methods of Coal Stacking

Problems Faced in Coal Stacks

Low Temperature Oxidation of Coal and Spontaneous Combustion

Factors Affecting the Spontaneous Combustion of Coal

Early Detection of Spontaneous Combustion in Stacks

Measures to be taken against the Phenomenon

Measures to be taken against Fires

STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

Radioactivity and Fission

Storage of Fuel

Transportation of Radioactive Materials

Volume Reduction of Low Level Wastes

Solidification

Radioactive Materials Produced in Nuclear Reactors

Fuel Waste

Controlled Release of Waste

Long Term Storage of Solid Wastes

ENERGY TRANSPORTATION

Energy Distribution System and Network

Modes of Energy Transportation

Transportation of Hydrogen

Environmental Issues

Safety Issues of Energy Transportation

Energy Transportation in the Twenty-First Century

PROCESSING OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY FUELS: PERSPECTIVE ON PETROLEUM REFINING

Types of Refineries

Types of Crude Oil to be processed.

Refinery Process

Major Separation Processes used to Produce Primary Fuels from Crude Oil

Major Conversion Processes for Upgrading Primary Fuels into Secondary Fuels

Refining Products

Refinery Operation

Future of the Petroleum Refining Industries

Natural Gas Processing

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

HIGH TEMPERATURE SOLAR CONCENTRATORS

Theoretical Background

Technical Concepts

MODELING AND DESIGN OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS INCLUDING SOLAR ECONOMICS

F-Chart Method

Modeling and Simulation of Solar Energy Systems

Solar Economic Analysis

EVOLUTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

General Introduction

Photovoltaic Materials and Technologies: State of the Art

Next Generation Solar Cells

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING - DOWNSTREAM

PHASE BEHAVIOR IN PETROLEUM FLUIDS: A DETAILED DESCRIPTIVE AND ILLUSTRATIVE ACCOUNT WITH EMPHASIS ON HEAVY ORGANICS

Introduction

Components of Petroleum Fluids

Petroleum Fluids Phase Behaviors

Discussion

AUTOMOTIVE FOSSIL FUELS: CHARACTERISTICS, EVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS

Introduction to Fuels

Introduction to Petroleum Based Fuels

Diesel Fuel

Gasoline

Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES CHARGED WITH ENERGY FROM THE SUN AND ORIGINATED FROM EARTH-MOON INTERACTION

Biomass as an Energy Source

Wind Energy

Wave Energy

Temperature Differences in the Ocean and Between Ocean and Air as Energy Source

Tidal Energy

DIRECT COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS

Background

Fundamentals of Biomass Combustion

The Nature of Biomass Solid Fuels

Fuel Preparation

Combustion Products from Biomass

Gaseous and Liquid Fuels Derived from Biomass

Emissions Control

Biomass Combustion Systems - Performance and Economics

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS

Pyrolysis Fundamentals

Pyrolysis Process Technology

Gasification Technologies

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND METEOROLOGY OF WIND

Wind Distribution

Eolian Features

Biological Indicators

Anemometers

Wind Direction

Energy and Power of Wind

Wind energy classification

The Effect of Site Wind Characteristics on Energy Production of Wind Turbines

Wind Conditions

Siting for Wind Turbines

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY EXTRACTION FROM WIND

Forces Arising when Wind Flows Over an Airfoil

Power Carried Over by the Wind and Extracted by the Wind Wheel

Types and Operating Characteristics of Wind Rotors

Wind Turbine Design and Output

WIND MILLS WITH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SHAFT

General Considerations

Development of Large Horizontal-Axis Systems

Development of Vertical-Axis Systems

Control Systems

Aerodynamics

Structural Dynamics

Fatigue and Failure Analysis

WIND INSTALLATION FOR WATER PUMPING, AUTONOMOUS AND GRID-CONNECTED POWER PRODUCTION

Agricultural Applications

Stand-alone and Wind/diesel Hybrid Systems

Water Pumping

Wakes and Clusters

Siting Large Wind Machines

Siting Small Wind Machines

ECONOMICS OF WIND INSTALLATIONS

General Considerations

Economics of Wind Energy for Utilities

Economics of Wind Energy for Small Applications

WIND INSTALLATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Acoustics

Electromagnetic Interference

Aesthetic

Land Use and Soil Disturbances

Biophysical

Environmental Conditions

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES IN THE OCEAN AT LOW LATITUDE AND BETWEEN SEA OR RIVER WATER AND AIR AT HIGH LATITUDES

Thermal Energy Accumulation

Estimates of Ocean Thermal Energy Stocks

OTEC Using Industrial Water

Cold Deep Ocean Water Application

Temperature Differences at High Latitudes

Temperature Differences Between Warm Ocean and Iceberg

Temperature Differences Between DOW and Hydrothermal Vents

SCHEMES AND CYCLES FOR OCEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES UTILIZATION

Background

Technical Limitations

OTEC and the Environment

Engineering Challenges

Open Cycle OTEC

The 210 kW OC-OTEC Experimental Apparatus

Design of a Small Land-Based OC-OTEC Plant

Closed Cycle OTEC

Design of a Pre-Commercial Floating Hybrid-OTEC Plant

Potential Sites

Economic Considerations and Market Potential

Hydrogen Production

Externalities

SCHEMES AND CYCLES OF AIR/WATER TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES UTILIZATION

Classification of Converters

Main Schemes of Converters

Theoretical Aspects

Practical Aspects

ECONOMICS OF NATURAL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES UTILIZATION

Basis of Assessment

Market

Opportunity

Status of Technology

Other Factors

Case Study

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF NATURAL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES UTILIZATION

Review of the OTEC and AWTEC Potential Markets and Development Foresight

Review of the Main Environmental Characteristics of the Potential OTEC Plants Sites

Review of OTEC and AWTEC Plants Features of Main Concern for the Environment

Impacts of OTEC Facilities Water Discharges. Theoretical and Experimental Results

WAVE MOTION PHYSICS AND ENERGY POTENTIAL

Linear Wind Waves

Nonlinear Wind Waves

Wave Energy Resources

PRINCIPLES OF WIND WAVE ENERGY EXTRACTION

General Equations

Principles of Wave Energy Extraction

Principles of Design for Wave Energy Extraction

Types of Processes and Working Tools for Wave Energy Extraction

Detailed Analysis of Working Tools Design

PROPOSED SYSTEMS FOR WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION

General Considerations

Designs that Use Periodic Alteration of Water Level in a Point of a Relatively Stabilized Body

Designs that Use the Difference of Phases of Water Levels in Spatially Spread Points

Designs that Use the Phases of Hydrostatic Pressure Difference in Spatially Spread Points

Designs that Use the Phases Difference in Total Water Pressure in Spatially Spread Points

Designs that Use Alteration of Total Pressure along a Relatively Stabilized Body

Designs that Use the Slope of Wave Surface

Designs for Wave Energy Concentration

Designs Used for Conversion of Energy of Particles in a Wave

ECONOMICS OF WAVE POWER PRODUCTION

Economic Feasibility of Wave Power Devices

Ways of Improving Economic Feasibility of WPP Plants

Classification of Wave Power Devices by Consumers Requirements

Analysis of Comparative Economic Efficiency of Wave Power Devices.

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF WAVE POWER

General Aspects

Wave Power Devices Environmental Features

Ways to Improve Wave Power Devices Friendliness

CHARACTERISTICS OF TIDAL ENERGY

Tide Characteristics

Tidal Energy in the World Oceans and Balance of Tidal Energy

Energy Potential

Diurnal Irregularity of Tidal Energy

Inequalities within a Month of Tidal Energy

Invariability of Monthly Mean Tidal Ranges

HISTORICAL SKETCH, PERSPECTIVE AND CLASSIFICATION OF TPP SCHEMES

Historical Perspective of Utilization of Tidal Power

Classifications and Comparison of TPP Schemes

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS

Specific Features of Site Selection

Specific Features of Determination of TPP Capacity and Output

Non-traditional Technologies of TPP Erection

Longevity of TPP Materials and Structures in Oceanic Environment

TPP Protection from Ice Effects in Northern Regions

TIDAL POWER PLANT EQUIPMENT

History of Turbine Optimization for TPP

Straight-Flow Turbine

Straight-flow “Straflo” Pilot Unit for the Annapolis TPP

Bulb Turbine

Rance TPP Bulb Unit

Kislaya Guba TPP Bulb Unit with Step-up Gear and Cycle Generator

Comparison of the “Straflo” Units and Bulb Units

New Orthogonal Turbine for TPP

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TIDAL ENERGY

Studies of TPP Effect on Environment

Assessment of Tidal Barrage Environmental Implications

Change of Hydrological Regime at Tidal Barrages

Passage of Fish through Tidal Barrages

Passage of Plankton through Tidal Barrage

Effect of Tidal Power Plants on Bottom Community

Studies of Silt in the Basin of Tidal Barrages

Change of Water Salinity at Tidal Barrages

Influence of Tidal Barrages on Ice Regime

Results of 30 Year Ecological Studies at the First Commercial La Rance TPP

Ecological Studies for a Large Tidal Barrage in England

Main Environmental Advantage

Social Significance of Tidal Barrages

Global Significance of Environmentally Benign Tidal Barrages

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TIDAL ENERGY

Reasons for Rise in the Cost of TPP Construction (Historical Background)

Inefficiency of Traditional Technology of TPP Construction behind Cofferdams

Possibilities of Significant Reduction of TPP Costs, Using New Equipment

Cost-effectiveness of TPP

Economic Assessment of TPP Optimized Operation Regime in the Modern Power System

Capital and Operating Costs of Modern TPPs

FUTURE OF TIDAL POWER

Comparison of Tidal Energy with Other Types of Ocean and River Energy

The Role of Tidal Energy in the World Power Engineering

Time to Construct TPPs

CONVERSION SYSTEMS OF HEAT TO MECHANICAL ENERGY

COMBUSTION PROCESS AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT ORGANIC FUELS. EMISSION PROBLEM

Industrial fuel

Fuel combustion

Organic fuels and problem of toxic combustion products

HEAT TRANSFER IN ENGINES

Fundamentals of the heat transfer theory

Thermal protection of power plants

Heat exchange apparatus

Heat transfer enhancement

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE HEAT TRANSFER THEORY

Types of Heat Transfer

Investigation Method of Heat Transfer

Differential Equations and Uniqueness Conditions

Simplified Equations

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow

Heat Transfer Coefficient and Friction Resistance

Similarity and Modeling of Heat Transfer Processes

Criterial Equations for Convective Heat Transfer in the Boundary Layer

Criterial Equations for Convective Heat Transfer in Channels

Heat Conduction Process

Radiative Heat Transfer

THERMAL PROTECTION OF POWER PLANTS

Thermal protection methods.

Porous cooling.

Block cooling of surfaces

HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS

Purpose of Heat Exchangers

Classification of heat exchangers

Classification of recuperative heat exchangers

Fundamentals of thermal calculation of heat exchangers

Hydraulic calculation of heat exchangers

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

Statement of the problem

Tubular heat exchangers with one-phase heat carriers

Tubular Evaporative Heat Exchangers

Tubular Condensers

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES OF RECIPROCATING AND ROTARY ENGINES

The main kinds of reciprocating engines

Work Done by a Working Fluid in the Cylinder of a Reciprocating Engine

Working Process and Indicator Diagram of a Four-stroke Engine

Working Process and Indicator Diagram of a Two-stroke Engine

Main Concepts of Thermodynamics

Main Distinctions Between Actual and Thermodynamic Cycles and Efficiency of a Cycle

Carnot cycle

Generalized Thermodynamic Cycle of Piston and Combined Engines

Otto cycle

Diesel cycle

Trinkler cycle

Comparative analysis of thermodynamic cycles of piston engines

Combined internal combustion engines (CICE)

Thermodynamic cycle of CICE with the impulse turbine

Thermodynamic Cycle of CICE with Constant Pressure in Front of the Turbine

Thermodynamic cycle of CICE with intermediate cooling of a working fluid

Stirling cycle

About the thermodynamic cycles of rotary internal combustion engines (ICE)

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES OF POWER AND TRANSPORT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

Energy diagrams and main parameters of power, driving and transport GTE (GTU).

Energy diagrams of the closed cycle

Energy diagrams and main parameters of combined GTU

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES OF AVIATION GAS TURBINE ENGINES

Basic Types and Concepts of Air-breathing Turbojet Engines

Ideal Air-breathing Turbojet Cycle

Real TJE Thermodynamic Cycles

Cycles of Combined Aviation Engines

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES OF DIRECT AND PULSED - PROPULSION ENGINES

Cycles of Piston Engines of Internal Combustion.

Jet Engines Using Liquid Oxidants

Compressor-less Air-Breathing Jet Engines

Pulsejet Engine.

Cycles of Gas-Turbine Propulsion Systems with Fuel Combustion at a Constant Volume

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES OF ROCKET ENGINES

Ideal cycle

Cycle thermal efficiency

Energy dissipation

Losses into engine chamber

NOISE PROBLEMS

Physical fundamentals of noise and sound

Effect of noise on the human being

Norms on admissible level of environmental aircraft noise and noise of ground GTE

Sources of a noise of AJE

Tests for the definition of acoustic performances of GTE

Factors, influencing to restriction of an air noise

Acoustic influence of transport, problem of slackening of a noise

Noise of power plants of a ground transport

Vibroacoustic diagnostics

STIRLING ENGINE

Thermodynamics

Variants in engine configuration

The influence of the surroundings

Engine characteristics and control

Historical survey in brief

The present and the future of stirling engines

CONTINUOUS-COMBUSTION ENGINES

GAS TURBINE ENGINES FOR MARINE AND ROAD TRANSPORT

Requirements of the transport power plants

Gas turbine development for marine and traffic transport

Cycles and schemes of traffic and marine gas turbine

Design peculiarities of transport gas turbine units

Problems and development outlooks of transport GT

GAS TURBINE AND WIND TURBINE ENGINES FOR POWER STATIONS

Gas Turbine Units and Combined Units on Liquid and (or) Gaseous Fuels

Gas Turbine Units and Combined Units using Solid Fuel

Gas Turbine Units on Nonconventional Power Sources

Installations on Nuclear Fuel

Influence of Power Gas Turbines and Combined Units on an Environment

Wind Turbines

GAS TURBINE AND WIND TURBINE ENGINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

Stationary gas turbine drive units

Transport gas turbine and combined engines

General features of transport gas turbine engines

Engines for vessels

Marine driving and auxiliary gas turbine units

Combined marine installations with gas turbine engines

Use of aviation gas turbine engines for marine vessels

Ways of noise reduction of marine gas turbine engines

Gas turbine engines for locomotives

Gas turbine engines for wheel and track machines

Wind turbines for mechanical drives

SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT ENGINES

Turbojet engines for supersonic flight velocities

Features of gas-turbine jets for high M

Combined engines for supersonic flight velocities

Supersonic and Hypersonic Air-feed Ramjet Engines

LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES

LRE general information

Main LRE parameters

LRE structure and liquid rocket engine installations (LREI) schemes

Historical reference

LRE development tendencies

SOLID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES

Historical information

SPRE scheme and main units

SPRE operation

Parameter optimization, the approach and results

Transient regime

Service

Development prospects

PERIODIC - COMBUSTION GAS TURBINE ENGINES (UNITS)

GTE of periodic combustion with three-valved and by two-valved chambers

GTE of Periodic Combustion with One-Valved Chambers

Efficiency of GTE of periodic combustion

THE HYDROREACTING MARINE SOLID FUEL ROCKET ENGINES

General information about hydroreacting marine solid fuel propulsion

Underwater apparatus propulsive quantities investigation

Foundations of HRE classification

Fuels and their requirements

Description of the principal schemes of HRF engines

Main engine’s and apparatus’ parameters correlation

Thermodynamic calculation in HRE using HRF and its peculiarities

The effective thrust notification

Characteristics of HRE using HRF

The HRE efficiency

BASIC ELEMENTS (UNITS) OF ENGINES AND MACHINES

TURBINES

The common information on work of turbines of various types

Multistage turbines

Feature of a radial flow (centripetal) turbines

Characteristics of turbines

Steam turbines and steam turbine units

Ways of increase of efficiency of steam turbine units

Gas turbines and gas turbine units

Multi-modular units with gas turbines

Gas turbine units working on a closed thermodynamic cycle

Combined units with steam and gas turbines

Cooling of gas turbines

COMPRESSORS

Compressor Definition, Types of Compressors

Basic equations for the gas dynamic compressor design

Gas dynamic compressors design

Blade (vane) and duct design

Gas dynamic compressor performances, modeling and controlling

COMBUSTOR CHAMBERS

Gas Turbine Combustor and its application.

Brief prehistory.

Combustor arrangement in gas turbine system.

Basic combustor components.

Combustor operation and maintenance.

Prospects of application of combustors.

PISTON GROUPS

Piston Construction Features of Different Engine Types

Calculation of Thermal and Stress-Strain State of the Piston.

Calculation of Thermal and Stress-Strain State of a Ring.

Strength Calculation of a Piston Pin

REDUCTION GEARS

Reduction Gears of air jet engines and helicopter turboshaft engines

Reduction Gears of ship turbines

Reduction gears of piston aircraft engines

NOZZLES OF AIR-BREATHING TURBOJETS

General features of flow in nozzles

Basic Parameters of Nozzles

Subsonic exhaust units

Exhaust units for supersonic flight velocities

Adjustable exhaust units

Exhaust Units with Thrust Reversal

Nozzles with thrust vectoring function

Nozzles of hypersonic jet engines

CONTROL AND FUEL FEED SYSTEMS

Classification of control systems and short history of their development

Control and fuel feed systems in piston engines with compression ignition (diesel engines)

Control and fuel feed systems in piston engines with forced ignition (gasoline engines)

Control and fuel feed systems in gas turbines

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

General information on friction and lubrication

Aviation oils, requirements and service properties

Purpose, structure and functioning of oil systems

Kinds of lubrications of aircraft engines friction units. Scavenging of heat by oil and required oil circulation

Friction and lubrication of ball and roller bearings in aviation GTEs

One-shot lubrication system of a GTE with short service life

Sealing of GTE rotor support bearings oil chambers

Lubrication and cooling of plain bearings

Circulation of oil and capacity of a lubrication system of aircraft GTEs

The schemes of lubrication systems and systems of aircraft GTEs breathing

Peculiarities of maintenance of aircraft GTEs OS

Compressor station and GPA: oilsupply systems, oil cleaning machines and system of oil cooling

Lubrication systems of PE

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchanger role in gas turbine units

Types of heat exchangers. Principle of operation

Heat exchanger pressure drop influence on the efficiency and the capacity of gas turbine installations

Heat exchanger pressure drop

Heat transfer surface types of heat exchangers

Heat transfer through heat transfer surface

Design of recuperative- type heat exchangers

Design of regenerative - type heat exchanger

Temperature expansion compensation system

Fouling problem

Introduction

Conclusion

PLANNING AND THE GEOPOLITICS OF ENERGY

ENERGY SECURITY : PAST ACCOMPLISHMENTS, EMERGING CHALLENGES

Evolution of the Oil Markets

Institutional Security Framework

Current State of Oil Security

Future Oil Security Needs

Strategic Initiatives to Enhance Security

Impact on Sustainable Development

ENERGY PLANNING AND POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ENERGY RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

World Energy Reserves and Resources: Summary

Oil

Natural Gas

Coal

Uranium

Renewable Energy Resources

ENERGY DEMAND AND SUPPLY ELASTICITIES

Competitive Markets

Supply Functions

Supply Elasticities

Using Elasticities to Forecast Supply

Energy Demand

Energy Demand Elasticities

Effect of Supply Disruption on Energy Prices

Demand Elasticities - Elastic Versus Inelastic

Forecasting with Demand Elasticities

Effect of Energy Environmental Taxes

Creating Demand Functions from Elasticities

Elasticities and Monopolies

PROJECTING ENERGY TRENDS INTO THE 21TH CENTURY

Energy-Evaluation Systems

The World Energy Projection System (WEPS)

Energy Consumption Projections

Fuel Shares Projections

Oil Price Projections

Past Forecasting Errors

Beyond Numbers

ENERGY MARKETS AND PRICING POLICIES

Oil

Coal

Electricity

ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS

Internalizing Externalities

Economics of Emission Control

The Taxation Approach

Applications

Tradable Permits

Types of Tradable Emission Permits

Combined Taxes and Permits

Applications

Efficiency of Economic Instruments

Social Welfare Aspects of Economic Instruments

Practical Experience

ENERGY-ECONOMY INTERACTIONS

Historical Perspective

Energy Use and Economic Structure

Energy Prices

Developing Countries

Energy Outlook

ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT: METHODOLOGIES AND TOOLS

Introduction: the Context and Rationale of Energy Planning and Management

Energy Supply Planning and Management: Methodologies and Tools

Energy Demand Planning and Management: Methodologies and Tools

ENERGY POLICIES AND DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS, AND THEIR IMPACTS

GOVERNMENT ENERGY POLICY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

How Effective are Government Energy Policies?

Government Energy Policies

ENERGY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES

Introduction: Energy and Economic Development

Evolving Energy Policies in Developing Countries

The Energy Supply Sectors

Electricity

Energy Efficiency

The Issue of "Access"

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY POLICY

Why Energy Efficiency Matters

The Electricity Supply Industry (ESI)

A Brief History of Energy Conservation in North America

The Birth of Incentivized Energy Conservation Programs

What is the Potential for Energy Conservation?

Market Failure and Energy Efficiency Standards

How Much Energy Conservation is too Much?

Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Conservation Efforts

Policy and Regulatory Options

The Demise of Regulatory-Driven Energy Conservation

Market Transformation: The Latest Panacea

New Policies for the Restructured Business Environment

THE CHANGING ROLE OF FUEL SWITCHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY POLICY AND ANALYSIS

The Fundamentals of Fuel Switching in Power Generation

The Changing Role of Fuel Switching: A Brief History

Fuel Switching in the Literature and Directions for Future Research

Energy Policy and Fuel Switching

STRATEGIES FOR THE ADOPTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

Background

Electricity Industry Restructuring

Market Impediments Facing Renewables

Current International Drivers for Renewables

Successful Strategies

Trends and Unresolved Issues

Requirements for Successful Transition to Renewables Based Energy Systems

THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN WORLD ENERGY POLICIES

Some History

Nuclear Power Today

Some Arguments Pro and Con

Scenarios for the Future

THE SWITCH TO LESS ENERGY-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY

Economic Development and Energy Input

Structural Analysis for Energy Intensity

Policy for Low Energy Consumption Economy

IMPACTS OF ENERGY TAXES AND SUBSIDIES

Taxes on fossil fuels

Fossil fuel subsidies

Alternative Policies

IMPACTS OF CARBON TAXES

The Theory of Carbon Taxes

Economy Level Studies

International Repercussions

International Tax Harmonization

Modifications to Standard Assumptions

SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

SOLAR DRYING - A TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION

Drying Fundamentals

Sun vs. Solar Drying

Types of Solar Dryer

Solar Dryers in Practice

Performance Evaluation of Solar Dryers

Designing Solar Drying Systems

Non-technical Factors

Prospects and Future Developments

SOLAR CO-GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY AND WATER, LARGE SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

COMPARISON OF OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOLOR AND FOUR-COLOR PHOTOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM - A REVIEW

Introduction

Omnicolar Photothermal and Photovoltaic Converters

Multicolor photothermal power plants

Four-color photothermal converters

Conclusion

DIRECT-CONTACT DEHUMIDIFICATION AS A SUSTAINABLE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE: A REVIEW

Introduction

Applications of DCDs in HDH systems

Sustainable DCD systems

Effectiveness of DCDs

Concluding remarks

ENERGY TRANSPORTATION

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND ENERGY RELATED CONCEPTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND

PROCESSING OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY FUELS : PERSPECTIVE ON PETROLEUM REFINING