World Scientists' Warning To Humanity

Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course. Human activities inflict harsh and often irreversible damage on the environment and on critical resources. If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future that we wish for human society and the plant and animal kingdoms, and may so alter the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we know. Fundamental changes are urgent if we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring about.


The environment is suffering critical stress:

The Atmosphere

Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens us with enhanced ultra-violet radiation at the earth's surface, which can be damaging or lethal to many life forms. Air pollution near ground level, and acid precipitation, are already causing widespread injury to humans, forests and crops.

Water Resources

Heedless exploitation of depletable ground water supplies endangers food production and other essential human systems. Heavy demands on the world's surface waters have resulted in serious shortages in some 80 countries, containing 40% of the world's population. Pollution of rivers, lakes and ground water further limits the supply.


Destructive pressure on the oceans is severe, particularly in the coastal regions which produce most of the world's food fish. The total marine catch is now at or above the estimated maximum sustainable yield. Some fisheries have already shown signs of collapse. Rivers carrying heavy burdens of eroded soil into the seas also carry industrial, municipal, agricultural, and livestock waste -- some of it toxic.


Loss of soil productivity, which is causing extensive Land abandonment, is a widespread byproduct of current practices in agriculture and animal husbandry. Since 1945, 11% of the earth's vegetated surface has been degraded -- an area larger than India and China combined -- and per capita food production in many parts of the world is decreasing.


Tropical rain forests, as well as tropical and temperate dry forests, are being destroyed rapidly. At present rates, some critical forest types will be gone in a few years and most of the tropical rain forest will be gone before the end of the next century. With them will go large numbers of plant and animal species.

Living Species

The irreversible loss of species, which by 2100 may reach one third of all species now living, is especially serious. We are losing the potential they hold for providing medicinal and other benefits, and the contribution that genetic diversity of life forms gives to the robustness of the world's biological systems and to the astonishing beauty of the earth itself.

Much of this damage is irreversible on a scale of centuries or permanent. Other processes appear to pose additional threats. Increasing levels of gases in the atmosphere from human activities, including carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel burning and from deforestation, may alter climate on a global scale. Predictions of global warming are still uncertain -- with projected effects ranging from tolerable to very severe -- but the potential risks are very great.

Our massive tampering with the world's interdependent web of life -- coupled with the environmental damage inflicted by deforestation, species loss, and climate change -- could trigger widespread adverse effects, including unpredictable collapses of critical biological systems whose interactions and dynamics we only imperfectly understand.

Uncertainty over the extent of these effects cannot excuse complacency or delay in facing the threat


The earth is finite. Its ability to absorb wastes and destructive effluent is finite. Its ability to provide food and energy is finite. Its ability to provide for growing numbers of people is finite. And we are fast approaching many of the earth's limits. Current economic practices which damage the environment, in both developed and underdeveloped nations, cannot be continued without the risk that vital global systems will be damaged beyond repair.

Pressures resulting from unrestrained population growth put demands on the natural world that can overwhelm any efforts to achieve a sustainable future. If we are to halt the destruction of our environment, we must accept limits to that growth. A World Bank estimate indicates that world population will not stabilize at less than 12.4 billion, while the United Nations concludes that the eventual total could reach 14 billion, a near tripling of today's 5.4 billion. But, even at this moment, one person in five lives in absolute poverty without enough to eat, and one in ten suffers serious malnutrition.

No more than one or a few decades remain before the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and the prospects for humanity immeasurably diminished.


We the undersigned, senior members of the world's scientific community, hereby warn all humanity of what lies ahead. A great change in our stewardship of the earth and the life on it, is required, if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.


Five inextricably linked areas must be addressed simultaneously:

  • We must bring environmentally damaging activities under control to restore and protect the integrity of the earth's systems we depend on. We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water. Priority must be given to the development of energy sources matched to third world needs -- small scale and relatively easy to implement. We must halt deforestation, injury to and loss of agricultural land, and the loss of terrestrial and marine plant and animal species.
  • We must manage resources crucial to human welfare more effectively. We must give high priority to efficient use of energy, water, and other materials, including expansion of conservation and recycling.
  • We must stabilize population. This will be possible only if all nations recognize that it requires improved social and economic conditions, and the adoption of effective, voluntary family planning.
  • We must reduce and eventually eliminate poverty.
  • We must ensure sexual equality, and guarantee women control over their own reproductive decisions.

The developed nations are the largest polluters in the world today. They must greatly reduce their overconsumption, if we are to reduce pressures on resources and the global environment. The developed nations have the obligation to provide aid and support to developing nations, because only the developed nations have the financial resources and the technical skills for these tasks.

Acting on this recognition is not altruism, but enlightened self-interest: whether industrialized or not, we all have but one lifeboat. No nation can escape from injury when global biological systems are damaged. No nation can escape from conflicts over increasingly scarce resources. In addition, environmental and economic instabilities will cause mass migrations with incalculable consequences for developed and undeveloped nations alike.

Developing nations must realize that environmental damage is one of the gravest threats they face, and that attempts to blunt it will be overwhelmed if their populations go unchecked. The greatest peril is to become trapped in spirals of environmental decline, poverty, and unrest, leading to social, economic and environmental collapse.

Success in this global endeavor will require a great reduction in violence and war. Resources now devoted to the preparation and conduct of war -- amounting to over $1 trillion annually -- will be badly needed in the new tasks and should be diverted to the new challenges.

A new ethic is required -- a new attitude towards discharging our responsibility for caring for ourselves and for the earth. We must recognize the earth's limited capacity to provide for us. We must recognize its fragility. We must no longer allow it to be ravaged. This ethic must motivate a great movement, convince reluctant leaders and reluctant governments and reluctant peoples themselves to effect the needed changes.

The scientists issuing this warning hope that our message will reach and affect people everywhere. We need the help of many.

We require the help of the world community of scientists -- natural, social, economic, political;

We require the help of the world's business and industrial leaders;

We require the help of the worlds religious leaders; and

We require the help of the world's peoples.

We call on all to join us in this task.


Anatole Abragam, Physicist; Fmr. Member, Pontifical Academy  of Sciences; France

Carlos Aguirre, President, Academy of Sciences, Bolivia

Walter Alvarez, Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Viqar Uddin Ammad, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World  Academies, Pakistan

Claude Allegre, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, France

Michael Alpers, Epidemiologist, Inst. of Med. Research, Papua  New Guinea

Anne Anastasi, Psychologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Philip Anderson, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Christian Anfinsen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA

How Ghee Ang, Chemist, Third World Academy, Singapore

Werner Arber, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland

Mary Ellen Avery, Pediatrician, National Medal of Science, USA

Julius Axelrod, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Michael Atiyah, Mathematician; President, Royal Society; Great Britain

Howard Bachrach, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA

John Backus, Computer Scientist, National Medal of Science, USA

Achmad Baiquni, Physicist, Indonesian & Third World Academies, Indonesia

David Baltimore, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

H. A. Barker, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA

Francisco J. Barrantes, Biophysicist, Third World Academy, Argentina

David Bates, Physicist, Royal Irish Academy, Ireland

Alan Battersby, Chemist, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain

Baruj Benacerraf, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Georg Bednorz, Nobel laureate, Physics; Switzerland

Germot Bergold, Inst. Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Venezuela

Sune Bergstrom, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Sweden

Daniel Bes, Physicist, Argentinean & Third World Academies, Argentina

Hans Bethe, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Arthur Birch, Chemist, Australian Academy of Science, Australia

Michael Bishop, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Konrad Bloch, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Nicholaas Bloembergen, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

David Mervyn Blow, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain

Baruch Blumberg, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Bert Bolin, Meteorologist, Tyler Prize, Sweden

Norman Borlaug, Agricultural Scientist, Nobel laureate, Peace; USA & Mexico

Frederick Bormann, Forest Ecologist; Past President, Ecological Soc. of Amer.; USA

Raoul Bott, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA

Ronald Breslow, Chemist, National Medal of Science

Ricardo Bressani, Inst. of Nutrition, Guatemalan & Third  World Academies, Guatemala

Hermann Bruck, Astronomer, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Great Britain

Gerardo Budowski, Natural Resources, Univ. Para La Paz, Costa Rica

E. Margaret Burbidge, Astronomer, National Medal of  Science, USA

Robert Burris, Biochemist, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, USA

Glenn Burton, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA

Adolph Butenandt, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Fmr.

President, Max Planck Inst.; Germany

Sergio Cabrera, Biologist, Univ. de Chile, Chile

Paulo C. Campos, Medical scientist, Philippine & Third World Academies, Philippines

Ennio Candotti, Physicist; President, Brazilian Soc. Adv of Science; Brazil

Henri Cartan, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, France

Carlos Chagas, Biologist; Univ. de Rio de Janeiro; Fmr. President, Pontifical Academy of Sciences; Brazil

Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar, Center for Liquid Crystal Research, India

Georges Charpak, Nobel laureate, Physics; France

Joseph Chatt, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain

Shiing-Shen Chern, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, China & USA

Christopher Chetsanga, Biochemist, Affican & Third World Academies, Zimbabwe

Morris Cohen, Engineering, National Medal of Science, USA

Stanley Cohen, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Stanley N. Cohen, Geneticist, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA

Mildred Cohn, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA

E. J. Corey, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA

John Cornforth, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Hector Croxatto, Physiologist, Pontifical & Third World Academies, Chile

Paul Crutzen, Chemist, Tyler Prize, Germany

Partha Dasgupta, Economist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Jean Dausset, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France

Ogulande Robert Davidson, Univ. Res. & Dev. Serv., African Acad., Sierra Leone

Margaret Davis, Ecologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Luis D'Croz, Limnologist, Univ. de Panama, Panama

Gerard Debreu, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Nobel laureate, Physics; France

Johann Deisenhofer, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany & USA

Frederica de Laguna, Anthropologist, National Academy of  Sciences, USA

Paul-Yves Denis, Geographer, Academy of Sciences, Canada

Pierre Deligne, Mathematician, Crafoord Prize, France

Frank Dixon, Pathologist, Lasker Award, USA

Johanna Dobereiner, Biologist, First Sec., Brazilian Academy of Sci.; Pontifical & Third World Academies, Brazil

Joseph Doob, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA

Renato Dulbecco, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Heneri Dzinotyiweyi, Mathematician, African & Third World Academies, Zimbabwe

Manfred Eigen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany

Samuel Eilenberg, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, USA

Mahdi Elmandjra, Economist; Vice President, African Academy of Sciences; Morocco

Paul Ehrlich, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA

Thomas Eisner, Biologist, Tyler Prize, USA

Mohammed T. El-Ashry, Environmental scientist, Third World Academy, Egypt & USA

Gertrude Elion, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Aina Elvius, Astronomer, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

K. O. Emery, Oceanographer, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Paul Erdos, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Hungary

Richard Ernst, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Switzerland

Vittorio Ersparmer, Pharmacologist, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy

Sandra Faber, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Nina Federoff, Embryologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Herman Feshbach, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA

Inga Fischer-Hjalmars, Biologist, Royal Academy of  Sciences, Sweden

Michael Ellis Fisher, Physicist, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain & USA

Val Fitch, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Daflinn Follesdal, President, Norwegian Academy of Science; Norway

William Fowler, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Otto Frankel, Geneticist, Australian Academy of Sciences, Australia

Herbert Friedman, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA

Jerome Friedman, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Konstantin V. Frolov, Engineer; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Kenichi Fukui, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Japan

Madhav Gadgil, Ecologist, National Science Academy, India

Mary Gaillard, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences. USA

Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Robert Gallo, Research Scientist, Lasker Award, USA

Rodrigo Gamez ,Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica

Antonio Garcia-Bellido, Biologist, Univ. Auto. Madrid, Royal Society, Spain

Leopoldo Garcia-Collin, Physicist, Latin American & Third World Academies, Mexico

Percy Garnham, Royal Society & Pontifical Academy, Great Britain

Richard Garwin, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Murray Gell-Mann, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Georgii Georgiev, Biologist, Lenin Prize, Russia

Humam Bishara Ghassib, Physicist, Third World Academy, Jordan

Ricardo Giacconi, Astronomer, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA

Eleanor J. Gibson, Psychologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Marvin Goldberger, Physicist; Fmr. President, Calif. Inst. of Tech., USA

Maurice Goldhaber, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA

Donald Glaser, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Sheldon Glashow, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

James Gowans, Wolf Prize in Medicine, France

Roger Green, Anthropologist, Royal Society, New Zealand

Peter Greenwood, Ichthyologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Edward Goldberg, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA

Coluthur Gopolan, Nutrition Foundation of India, Indian &Third World Academies, India

Stephen Jay Gould, Paleontologist, Author, Harvard Univ., USA

Roger Guillemin, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Herbert Gutowsky, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, USA

Erwin Hahn, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA

Gonzalo Halffter, Ecologist, Inst. Pol. Nac. ,Mexico

Kerstin Hall, Endocrinologist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Mohammed Ahmed Hamdan, Mathematician, Third World, Academy, Jordan

Adnan Hamoui, Mathematician, Third World, Academy, Kuwait

A. M. Harun-ar Rashid, Physicist; Sec., Bangladesh, Academy of Sci., Bangladesh

Mohammed H. A. Hassan, Physicist; Exec. Sec., Third World  Academy of Sciences; Sudan & Italy

Ahmed Hassanli, Chemist, African Academy of Sciences, Tanzania & Kenya

Herbert Hauptman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA

Stephen Hawking, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain

Elizabeth Hay, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Dudley Herschbach, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA

Gerhard Herzberg,Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada

Antony Hewish, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain

George Hitchings, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Roald Hoffman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA

Robert Holley, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Nick Holonyak, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of Science, USA

Lars Hormander, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Sweden

Dorothy Horstmann, Epidemiologist, National Academy of  Sciences, USA

John Houghton, Meteorologist; Chairman, Science Working Group, IPCC; Great Britain

Sarah Hrdy, Anthropologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Kenneth Hsu, Geologist, Third World Academy, China & Switzerland

Kun Huang, Physicist, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Hiroshi Inose, Electrical Engineer; Vice President, Engineering Academy; Japan

Turner T. Isoun, Pathologist, African Academy of Sciences,

Nigeria Francois Jacob, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France

Carl-Olof Jacobson, Zoologist; Sec-Gen., Royal Academy of Sciences; Sweden

Dorothea Jameson, Psychologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Daniel Janzen, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA

Cecilia Jarlskog, Physicist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Louise Johnson, Biophysicist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Harold Johnston, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA

Victor A. Kabanov, Chemist, Lenin Prize in Science, Russia

Jerome Karle, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Robert Kates, Geographer, National Medal of Science, USA

Frederick I. B. Kayanja, Vice-Chnclr., Mbarara Univ., Third World Academy, Uganda

Joseph Keller, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA

Henry Kendall, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chairman, Union of  Concerned Scientists; USA

John Kendrew, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Elisabeth Kessler, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Maung-U Khin, Pediatrician, Third World Academy, Myamnar & USA

Gurdev Khush, Agronomist, International Rice Institute, Indian Natl. Sci.Academy, India & Philippines

Susan Kieffer, Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel laureate, Physics; Germany

Aaron Klug, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, Great Britain

E. F. Knipling, Agricultural Researcher, National Medal of  Science, USA

Walter Kohn, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA

Janos Kornai, Economist, Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary

Aderemi Kuku, Mathematician, African & Third World Acads., Nigeria

Ikuo Kushiro, Geologist, Japan Academy, Japan

Devendra Lal, Geophysicist, National Science Academy, India

Gerardo Lamas-Muller, Biologist, Museo de Historia Natural, Peru

Torvard Laurent, Physiological chemist; President, Royal Academy of Sciences; Sweden

Leon Lederman, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chr., Amer. Assn. Adv. Sci.; USA

Sang Soo Lee, Physicist, Korean & Third World Academies, Rep. of Korea

Yuan T. Lee, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA

Susan Leeman, PharmacologistX National Academy of Sciences, USA

Jean Marie Lehn, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; France

Wassily Leontief, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA

Luna Leopold, Geologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Physicist, French & Pontifical Academies, France

Vladilen Letokhov, Physicist, Lenin Prize in Science, Russia

Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA & Italy

Li Chang-lin, Environmental Sciences, Fudan University, China

Shan Tao Liao, Mathematician, Chinese & Third World Academies, China

William Lipscomb, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Jane Lubchenco, Zoologist; President-Elect, Ecological Soc. of Amer.; USA

Christopher Magazda, Limnologist, African Academy of  Sciences, Zimbabwe

Lydia Phindile Makhubu, Chemist, Third World & African Academies, Swaziland

Khursheed Ahmad Malik, Microbiologist, Pakistan & Third World Academies, Pakistan & Germany

Lynn Margulis, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Paul Marks, Oncologist, National Medal of Science, USA

George Martine, Inst. for Study of Society, Population, & Nature; Brazil

Frederico Mayor, Biochemist; Dir. Gen., UNESCO, Spain &

France Ernst Mayr, Zoologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Maclyn McCarty, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA

James McConnell, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Ireland

Digby McLaren, Past President, Royal Society of Canada; Canada

James Meade, Nobel laureate, Economics; Great Britain

Jerrold Meinwald, Chemistry, Tyler Prize, USA

M. G. K Menon, Physicist; President, International Council of Scientific Unions; India

Gennady Mesiatz, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia

Jan Michalski, Biologist, Polish Academy of Science, Poland

Hartmut Michel, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany

Brenda Milner, Neurologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada

Cesar Milstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Argentina & Great Britain

Franco Modigliani, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA

Andrei Monin, Oceanologist, State Prize, Russia

Marcos Moshinsky, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Mexico

Nevill Mott, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain

Teruaki Mukaiyama, Chemist, Japan Academy, Japan

Walter Munk, Geophysicist, National Medal of Science, USA

Anne Murray, Ethnographer, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Joseph Murray, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Noreen Murray,Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Lawrence Mysak, Meteorologist; Vice President, Academy of  Science, Royal Society of Canada; Canada

Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Astrophysicist, Indian & Third World Academies, India

Anwar Nasim, Biologist, Third World Academy, Saudi Arabia

Kim Nasmyth, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain & Austria

James Neel, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA

Louis Neel, Nobel laureate, Physics; France

Yuval Ne'eman, Physicist, Natl. Acad. of Sci. & Humanities, Israel

Oleg M. Nefedov, Chemist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia

Erwin Neher, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Germany

Marshall Nirenberg, Biochemist; Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Yasutomi Nishizuka, Biochemist, Lasker Award, Japan

John S. Nkoma, Physicist, Third World Academy, Botswana

Paul Nchoji Nkvvi, Anthropologist, African Academy, Cameroon

Howard Odum, Ecologist, Crafoord Prize, USA

Bede Nwoye Okigbo, Agricultural Scientist; Dir., U.N. Unv. Pgm. Natrl. Res. in Afr.; Nigeria & Kenya

Ayub Khan Ommaya, Neurobiologist, Third World Academy, Pakistan & USA

Cyril Agodi Onwumechili, Physicist, Fmr. Pres., Nigerian

Acad. of Sciences, Nigeria & Great Britain

Mary Jane Osborn, Microbiologist, National Academy of  Scientists, USA

Yuri Ossipyan, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia

Autzr Singh Paintal, Physiologist, Fmr. President, Indian National Science Academy, India

George Pake, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA

George Palade, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Mary Lou Pardue, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Linus Pauling, Nobel laureate, Chemistry & Pence, USA

Barbara Pearse, Molecular Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Muhammed Abed Peerally, Biologist, Third World Academy, Mauritius

Manuel Peimbert, Astronomer, Univ. Nac. Aut. de Mexico, Mexico

Roger Penrose, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain

John Philip, Agricultural Science, Australian Academy of  Science, Australia

Lilian Pickford, Physiologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

John R. Pierce, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of  Science, USA

John Polanyi, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada

George Porter, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Ilya Prigogine, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Belgium

Giampietro Puppi, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of  Sciences, Italy

Edward Purcell, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Atta ur-Rahman, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World Academies,  Pakistan

G. N. Ramachandran, Mathematician, Inst. of Science, India

Tiruppattur Ramakrishnan, Physicist, Indian & Third World  Academies, India

Chintamani Rao, Inst. of Science, Indian and Pontifical Academies, India

Eduardo Rapoport, Ecologist, Third World Academy, Argentina

Marianne Rasmuson, Geneticist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

Peter Raven, Director, Missouri Botanical Garden; National Academy of Sciences, USA

Martin Rees, Astronomer, Royal Society & Pontifical Academy, Great Britain

Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Anthropologist, Columbian & Third World Academies, Columbia

Tadeus Reichstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland

Frederick Reines, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA

Alexander Rich, Biologist, National & Pontifical Academies, USA

Burton Richter, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Ralph Riley, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, Great Britain

Claude Rimington, Inst. for Cancer Research, Norwegian Academy of Science, Norway

Gustavo Rivas Mijares, Engineer; Fmr. President, Academy of Sciences, Venezuela

Frederick Robbins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Wendell Roelofs, Entomologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Betty Roots, Zoologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada

Miriam Rothschild, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Sherwood Rowland, Chemist; President, American Association for the Advancement of Science; USA

Janet Rowley, Physician, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Carlo Rubbia, Nobel laureate, Physics, Italy & Switzerland

Vera Rubin Physicist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Yuri Rudenko, Energy Research Inst., State Prize laureate, Russia

Elizabeth Russell, Jackson Laboratory, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Albert Sabin, Virologist, National Medal of Science, USA

Carl Sagan, Astrophysicist & Author, USA

Roald Sagdeev, Physicist, Russian & Pontifical Academies, Russia & USA

Ruth Sager, Geneticist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Farrokh Saidi, Surgeon, Third World Academy, Iran

Abdus Salam,Nobel laureate, Physics; President, Third World Academy of Sciences, Pakistan & Italy

Frederick Sanger, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Jose Sarukhan, Biologist, Third World Academy, Mexico

Berta Scharrer, Neuroscientist, National Medal of Science, USA

Richard Schultes, Botanist, Tyler Prize, USA

Melvin Schwartz, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Julian Schwinger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Glenn Seaborg, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

Michael Sela, Weizmann Inst., Pontifical Academy of Science, Israel

Arne Semb-Johansson, Entomologist, Norwegian Academy of Science, Norway

Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Chemist, Pontifical & Third World Academies, Pakistan

Kai Siegbahn, Nobel laureate, Physics; Sweden

Thomas Silou, Biochemist, African Academy of Sciences, Congo

Herbert Simon, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA

Alexej Sitenko, Physicist, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Ukraine

Jens Skou, Biophysicist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Denmark

Charles Slack, Agricultural Science, Royal Society, New Zealand

George Snell, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Roger Sperry, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Alexander Spirin, Biologistn Lenin Prize, Russia

Earl Stadtman, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA

Thressa Stadtman, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Ledyard Stebbins, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA

Jack Steinberger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA & Switzerland

Janos Szentgothai, Fmr. President, Hungarian Academy of  Sciences; Hungary

Tan Jia-zhen, Geneticist, Shanghai Univ., China

Andrezej Tarkowski, Embryologist, Polish [text missing]

Valentine Telegdi, Wolf Prize in Physics, Switzerland

Kirthi Tennakone, Physicist, Third World Academy, Sri Lanka

Walter Thirring, Physicist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies, Austria

Donnall Thomas, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Jan Tinbergen, Nobel laureate, Economics; Netherlands

Samuel C. C. Ting, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA

James Tobin, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA

Alexander Todd, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Susumu Tonegawa, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Japan & USA

Cheng Kui Tseng, Oceanologist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China

Hans Tuppy, Biochemist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies, Austria

James Van Allen, Physicist, Crafoord Prize, USA

Simon van der Meer, Nobel laureate, Physics; Netherlands & Switzerland

John Vane, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain

Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Martha Vaughan, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

George Wald, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Henrik Wallgren, Zoologist, Society of Science & Letters, Finland

E. T. S. Walton, Nobel laureate, Physics, Ireland

Prawase Wasi, Hematologist, Third World Academy, Thailand

Gerald Wasserburg, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, USA

James Watson, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Victor Weisskopf, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA

Thomas Weller, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Diter von Wettstein, Physiologist, Royal Academy of  Sciences, Denmark

Fred Whipple, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Gilbert White, Geographer, Tyler Prize, USA

Torsten Wiesel, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA

Jerome Wiesner, Physicist, Fmr. President, Mass. Inst. of  Tech., USA

Maurice Wilkins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain

Geoffrey Wilkinson, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain

Richard Willems, Geneticist, Estonian Biocentre, Estonia

Edward O. Wilson, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA

Lawrence A. Wilson, Agricultural Science, Third World  Academy, Trinidad

Evelyn Witkin, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA

Yang Fujia, Physicist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China

Alexander L. Yanshin, Geologist, Karpinsky Gold Medal, Russia

Yongyuth Yuthavong, Biochemist; Director, National Sci. & Tech. Devl. Agency, Thailand

Zhao Zhong-xian, Physicist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China

Zhou Guang-zhao, Physicist; President, Chinese Academy of Sciences;, China

Solly ZuckerInan, Zoologist, Royal Society, Great Britain

Over 1,500 members of national, regional, and international science academies have signed the Warning. Sixty-nine  nations from all parts of Earth are represented, including  each of the twelve most populous nations and the nineteen  largest economic powers. The full list includes a majority of the Nobel laureates in the sciences. Awards and  institutional affiliations are listed for the purpose of  identification only.

[Warning issued on November 18, 1992]

For information regarding additional signatories, please contact Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge MA 02238-9105, (617) 547-5552.